Category: Research Paper
At the current rate of consumption, it’s not going to take long before we have used up all of what we have become so dependent upon. That is why the world is looking at a new source of energy. A very small and unexpected source that most would not even have considered an option; algae. Using biodiesel fuels harvested from algae is not only helpful for the environment, but is a smarter way to produce alternative energy, save money, create jobs and eliminate America’s dependency on foreign oil. The use of biodiesel fuel has been around since the beginning of the diesel engine. Its inventor, Rudolf Diesel, showcased his invention using peanut oil as the fuel source driving the engine. Diesel stated that “the diesel engine can be fed with vegetable oils and would help considerably in the development of agriculture of the countries which use it" (qtd. in Leduc). The diesel engine was a huge success, but unfortunately, the use of peanut oil was not. The problem with using plant derived oils for fuels is the high viscosity of the oils harvested. These oils don’t burn as completely and “cleanly” as fossil fuels do, so they leave deposits and build up in the engine’s cylinders and fuel injectors. This was part of the reason companies and governments chose to pursue using fossil fuels instead of biodiesel. In addition to cleaner burning, fossil fuels were readily available and cheap during Rudolf’s day. Well, times have changed since the introduction of the combustion engine, and the use of fossil fuels has become increasingly more expensive. That is why biofuels are becoming increasingly more popular. But this is not a new idea. During the late 1970’s the Department of Energy funded research for the development of renewable fuel sources from different algae species. According
to the United States Department of Energy, the main focus of the program, known as the Aquatic Species Program (ASP), was “the production of biodiesel from high lipid-content algae grown in ponds, utilizing waste CO2 from coal fired power plants” (3). The research of algae potential has been ongoing for several years all over the world. These micro-organisms were being studied to see if there was potential for their use as the new fuel source supplying the world’s need for a new alternative energy. For many years algae has been known to be a good source of oil. Depending upon the species of algae, “up to 50% of an algae’s body weight is comprised of oil” (Haag). It is this oil that companies and scientists are desperately trying to harvest for commercial use. The problem however, is in the growing and processing procedures of the algae. Growing algae has primarily been done using huge open pools of water, exposed to the elements, and susceptible to foreign contamination. This method of growing not only takes up huge amounts of water, but also takes much more time to grow. Algae being allowed to take it’s time growing, and having the possibility of foreign contaminants being introduced into its environment, has therefore led to the development of many newer growing systems. Developers understand that algae only needs sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to grow. By completely enclosing the environment algae is grown in, and by introducing these elements, algae growth is not only sped up dramatically, but the oil yield percentage increases significantly as well. Due to the elimination of foreign contamination inhibiting algae growth, these new growing systems can produce big numbers in terms of algae oil production. In addition, the amount of water and land needed to produce the algae is reduced to only a fraction of what was previously needed for earlier growing methods. In the past, growing methods took a long time and didn’t yield a high percentage of oil. Now, with the newer technologies of growing, algae Jenson 3
can be produced in huge amounts in just a matter of days, or even hours. “Given the right conditions, algae can.
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Algae Could Solve World's Fuel Crisis Von Philip Bethge Dan Robertson is working on algae that can produce biofuel. Genetically modified blue and green algae could be the answer to the world's fuel problems. Bioengineers have already developed algae that produce ethanol, oil and even diesel -- and the only things the organisms need are sunlight, CO2 and seawater. For reasons of data protection and privacy, your IP address will only be stored if you are a registered user of Facebook and you are currently logged in to the service. For more detailed information, please click on the "i" symbol. Biochemist Dan Robertson's living gas stations have the dark-green shimmer of oak leaves and are as tiny as E. coli bacteria. Their genetic material has been fine-tuned by human hands. When light passes through their outer layer, they excrete droplets of fuel. "We had to fool the organism into doing what I wanted it to do," says Robertson, the head of research at the US biotech firm Joule Unlimited. He proudly waves a test tube filled with a green liquid. The businesslike biochemist works in a plain, functional building on Life Sciences Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His laboratory is sparsely furnished and the ceiling is crumbling. Nevertheless, something miraculous is happening in the lab, where Robertson and his colleagues are working on nothing less than solving the world's energy problem. They have already.
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removing iron from the medium will have drastic negative effect on the cell growth. (Meng Chen, 2011)3. The efficiency of carbon fixation highly depends on the carbon supply, for microalgae to growth at an optimal rate, the CO2 need to be at least 2%. Carbon supply needs to be pure and if source of carbon is from the flue gas, it might have contamination resulting in growth inhibition (C. A. Santos, 2011)4. Furthermore, limited carbon supply will have negative impact on the cell growth. With a richer carbon supply, specific growth rate will increase and thus resulting in a high cell concentration. This will enhance productivity of cell cultures. Physical conditions Types of culturing (e.g. closed system photobioreactor and open system algae ponds) affect the productivity. This is because closed system has an advantage of better control of certain key parameters (e.g. temperature, incident light intensity) compared to an open system. However, open system allows larger volume of culture whereas closed system will the limitation of culture volume. Another physical condition is the depth of culture. Depth of culture is important when mixing of culture is minimized, this limit the gas and light transfer thus affecting the efficiency of carbon fixation (Alemayehu Kasahun Gebremariam, 2012)2. Light intensity plays an important factor in the enhancement of carbon fixation. Lipid (for biodiesel) content is maximized at an optimal light intensity. Different.
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A Seminar Report On “BLUE EYES” TECHNOLOGY By Anuj Arora(UE7510) [pic] University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab University [2010-2011] Overview 1. Need of Biofuels – Global Problems 2. Algae – Part of Solution 3. Current Trends In Production 4. Recent Research 5. Challenges 6. Conclusions Need of Biofuels – Global Problems Global Problems – Oil Price/Supply ▪ Peak oil approaching. ▪ Current oil and diesel prices on the rise. [pic][pic] Global Problems – Climate Change ▪ According to the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 4th Assessment Report (Nov. 17, 2007), “warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level.” ▪ According to the IPCC Assessment, “global GHG emissions due to human activities have grown since pre-industrial times, with an increase of 70% between 1970 and 2004.” ▪ “CO2 is the most important anthropogenic GHG. Its annual emissions grew by about 80% between 1970 and 2004.” ▪ “Global atmospheric concentration of CO2, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased markedly as a result of human activities since1750 and now far exceed pre-industrial values determine from ice cores spanning many thousands of years.” [pic] [pic] Global.
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December 2013 Algae Biodiesel "Most fossil fuel supply experts project a future in which world crude oil supply drops two to five per cent per year. If it happens in 2015: by 2030 people must manage on 33% less oil, in 2045 they have 50% less, in 2060 they have 75% less" (“Fossil Fuel Depletion”). Fuel is essential in our society, and this depletion has affected and will continue to affect everyone. Because fossil fuels are nonrenewable, biodiesel is the next best thing. "Biodiesel refers to any diesel-equivalent bio fuel made from renewable biological materials such as vegetable oils or animal fats consisting of long chain saturated hydrocarbons" (“Biodiesel from Algae ”). Unfortunately, biodiesel made from land based crops include various problems, namely the displacement of food and amount of crops needed to produce just one gallon of oil (“Biodiesel from Algae ”). "Algae were first explored as a fuel alternative in 1978 under Jimmy Carter. Algae are easy to grow and can be manipulated to produce huge amounts without disturbing any natural habits or food sources. Algae are easy to please- all they need are water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide" (“How Algae Biodiesel Works”). Algae have been proven to yield 30 times more energy per acre than any [land based] crop (“Biodiesel from Algae ”), algae biodiesel companies will only need.
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Algal Research 2 (2013) 445–454 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Algal Research journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/algal Process development for hydrothermal liquefaction of algae feedstocks in a continuous-ﬂow reactor Douglas C. Elliott ⁎, Todd R. Hart, Andrew J. Schmidt, Gary G. Neuenschwander, Leslie J. Rotness, Mariefel V. Olarte, Alan H. Zacher, Karl O. Albrecht, Richard T. Hallen, Johnathan E. Holladay Paciﬁc Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, MSIN P8-60, Richland, WA 99352, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 June 2013 Received in revised form 26 August 2013 Accepted 29 August 2013 Available online 29 September 2013 Keywords: Hydrothermal Liquefaction Catalyst Hydrotreating Gasiﬁcation Aqueous phase a b s t r a c t Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-ﬂow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difﬁculties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt.% of.
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ALGAEAlgae are eukaryotic organisms that have no roots, stems, or leaves but do have chlorophyll and other pigments for carrying outphotosynthesis. Algae can be multicellular or unicellular. Unicellular algae occur most frequently in water, especially in plankton. Algae are eukaryotic organisms that have no roots, stems, or leaves but do have chlorophyll and other pigments for carrying out photosynthesis. Algae can be multicellular or unicellular. Unicellular algae occur most frequently in water, especially in plankton.Phytoplankton is the population of free‐floating microorganisms composed primarily of unicellular algae . In addition, algae may occur in moist soil or on the surface of moist rocks and wood. Algae live with fungi in lichens. According to the Whittaker scheme, algae are classified in seven divisions, of which five are considered to be in the Protista kingdom and two in the Plantae kingdom. The cell of an alga has eukaryotic properties, and some species have flagella with the “9‐plus‐2” pattern of microtubules. A nucleus is present, and multiple chromosomes are observed in mitosis. The chlorophyll and other pigments occur in chloroplasts, which contain membranes known as thylakoids. Most algae are photoautotrophic and carry on photosynthesis. Some forms, however, are chemoheterotrophic and.
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Green algae have many similarities to land plants. It has many variety body types and the multicellular forms do not have cells separated into tissues, which is what divides green algae from land plants. Green algae are a very diverse group of freshwater algae . Many green algae form long filaments. The cells stay attached after they divide. Spirogyra can become so numerous they form dense mats of growth in surfaces of ponds, which is called pond scum. This pond scum is interesting to see through a microscope. The chloroplasts from squeezed green algae have many distinct shapes. In Spirogyra the chloroplast runs through the cell like a helix. Most green algae have flagellate cells during the life cell cycle, which a few of them are non-motile. The first organization for motility in green algae is unicellular. Unicellular green algae can be either motile or non-motile. Motile green algae usually reproduce asexually by mitosis and cell division. Unicellular non-motile green algae usually produce zoospores. The second type of organization is colonial. In this organization the cells join together in colonies by attaching to one another with cytoplasmic threads. Colonial green algae can also reproduce either sexually or asexually. The third and final type of organization is filamentous. Green algae .
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BIODIESEL FROM GREEN ROPE AND BROWN ALGAE . FUTURE RENEWABLE ENERGY An Investigatory Project Submitted as an Entry to the 2012 Division Science fair TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Number Title Page Table of Contents Abstract Research Plan Experimental Design Experimental Procedures Flow Chart The Problem and Its Background Introduction Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Limitation of the Study Definition of Terms Review of Related Literature Results and Discussions Conclusions Recommendations References/Bibliography Acknowledgements PART III ABSTRACT This study entitled “Biodiesel From Green Rope And Brown Algae . Future Renewable Energy” was undertaken to determine the potential of macroalgae as renewable energy and to find out how biofuel produced from algae can be a good substitute for commercial diesel. In this study the researchers used common species Green rope seaweed (Acrosiphonia mertinsii) and Brown algae (Sargassum crassifolium). The experimental design consists of two Petri dishes which contains 1 kg. of Acrosiphonia mertinsii and Sargassum crassifolium. The algae were pounded and dried before oil was extracted. The extracted oil had undergone transesterification. This reaction was often catalyzed by the addition of acid or base catalyst. After transesterification biodiesel produced went.
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Algae Essay, Research Paper
Recently, I interviewed someone from the Island of Orkney, off the northern shore of Scotland. He described the seas as being nutrient rich and crystal clear. Traditionally, sea weed, (called sea vegetables in Scotland) has been used for herbal remedies, food products, animal food, cosmetics, and fertilizers.
Two of the major species I was informed of were Laminaria, and Carrageen Chondrus crispus (Irish moss). Laminaria, (commonly called “kelp”) has it has the ability to re-growth extremely fast, making it an almost infinitely sustainable crop. Auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins exist in large amounts, which are used for animal food supplements.
Laminaria is the main seaweed used in Scotland, but Red-weed, green-weed, purple-weed, and pinkweed each with its own unique benefits. The various species are used for health products, cosmetics and natural fertilizers for gardens. The seaweed is currently used for animal and human consumption. Red seaweed gel is used for respiratory problems in animals, (particularly horses), and green seaweed gel, is used as an animal food supplement for growth and minerals. For human consumption, Red seaweed extract is used as a general tonic and Red seaweed beautifying cream and a seaweed skin rub for sports people. An interesting fact is that Orkney Gold’s Seaweed Supreme won The Scottish Food Award in 1995 and 1996. It is made of different flavored kelp dips which can be substituted for tartar sauce, horse radish, mint sauce, dips for French fries, spread for sandwiches and salad dressings.
The old Norse word for seaweed is ‘tang’ and ‘gathering ther tangs’, as it used to wash up on the beaches after each winter storm. It was also the only form of land nutrition available to the crofters and early farmers. It was used to aid the crops and livestock they produced on land. Various species were once used in local herbal remedies and medicines (especially Laminaria and carrageen), and the sheep and cattle were fed on them during famine. The old resources are slowly being brought back into use, as they are seen in Scotland as natural and environmentally safe.
Academic Writing Skills. Teacher's Manual 3
Comprising three course books, this series is aimed at university students in all disciplines who require instruction in completing academic writing tasks. Through extensive use of examples, model texts, and practical activities, the course develops the essential skills needed to compose texts which meet the expectations of an academic reader. Academic Writing Skills 3 addresses higher-level academic features, such as understanding essay prompts, research, paragraph cohesion, logical connections, and effective sentence building. It is appropriate for students wishing to focus on specific essay types that require the use and integration of sources to complete academic writing tasks. Academic Writing Skills 3 Teacher's Manual has two parts: Part 1: Lesson plans for each part of each unit Part 2: The answer key to the exercises
Viewpoint is a two-level series for adults and young adults, taking learners from a high intermediate to advanced level of proficiency (CEFR: B2 - C1). The course is based on research into the Cambridge English Corpus, so it teaches English as it is really used. - Extensive corpus research ensures natural language is presented and practiced in authentic contexts. - Engaging writing tasks with explicit goals prepare learners to succeed in professional and academic writing. - Vocabulary-learning strategies encourage learner independence. - Tips to avoid common errors teach learners to use English accurately. The course is written by the same author team that produced the ground-breaking Touchstone series, a four-level series that takes students from beginner to intermediate levels (CEFR: A1 - B2).
Objective First 4 Edition Workbook with answers +CD-ROM
Objective First Fourth Edition is official preparation for the revised Cambridge English: First exam, also known as First Certificate in English (FCE). It has been fully updated in line with the revised exam. The Workbook with answers with Audio CD provides opportunities for further practice of new language and skills either at home or in the classroom. It includes an exam-style listening exercise every other unit. Key features of the Objective First course: Vocabulary sections informed by the English Vocabulary Profile, part of the English Profile project, ensure that students learn the words and meanings they require at B2 level. A student's CD-ROM provides extra practice of language and topics covered in the Student's Book, and includes wordlists which may be used either with or without definitions. 24 units, each focusing on a different stimulating topic, make preparing for Cambridge English: First a manageable task. Complete Cambridge English: First practice tests are available online. Regular Exam Folders provide systematic exam preparation and practice, covering each paper in detail. Writing Folders every two units give practice in writing skills and exam technique for the range of skills needed for Paper 2. Corpus Spots use examples from the Cambridge Learner Corpus to highlight common learner errors and train students to avoid them.
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