In Kate Chopin’s short story “The Story of an Hour,” there is much irony. The first irony detected is in the way that Louise reacts to the news of the death of her husband, Brently Mallard. Before Louise’s reaction is revealed, Chopin alludes to how the widow feels by describing the world according to her perception of it after the “horrible” news. Louise is said to “not hear the story as many women have heard the same.” Rather, she accepts it and goes to her room to be alone. Now the reader starts to see the world through Louise’s eyes, a world full of new and pure life. In her room, Louise sinks into a comfortable chair and looks out her window. Immediately the image of comfort seems to strike a odd note. One reading this story should question the use of this word “comfortable” and why Louise is not beating the furniture instead.
Next, the newly widowed women are looking out of the window and sees spring and all the new life it brings. The descriptions used now are as far away from death as possible. “The delicious breath of rain…the notes of a distant song…countless sparrows were twittering…patches of blue sky….” All these are beautiful images of life, the reader is quite confused by this most unusual foreshadowing until Louise’s reaction is explained. The widow whispers “Free, free, free!” Louise realizes that her husband had loved her, but she goes on to explain that as men and women often inhibit each other, even if it is done with the best of intentions, they exert their own wills upon each other. She realized that although at times she had loved him, she has regained her freedom, a state of being that all of God’s creatures strive for. Although this reaction is completely unexpected, the reader quickly accepts it because of Louise’s adequate explanation. She grows excited and begins to fantasize about living her life for herself. With this realization, she wishes that “life might be long,” and she feels like a “goddess of Victory” as she walks down the stairs. This is an eerie foreshadowing for an even more unexpected ending. The reader has just accepted Louise’s reaction to her husband’s death, when the most unexpected happens; her husband is actually alive and he enters the room shocking everyone, and Louise especially, as she is shocked to death. The irony continues, though, because the doctors say she died of joy, when the reader knows that she actually died because she had a glimpse of freedom and could not go back to living under her husband’s will again. In the title, the “story” refers to that of Louise’s life. She lived in the true sense of the word, with the will and freedom to live for only one hour.Navigation
1. Open the brackets and make the story complete.
1) What you (to learn) for today? — I (to be) sorry, I (not to prepare) my lesson. I (to be) ill yesterday
and (not to know) what to do. I (to prepare) my lesson tomorrow. — If
you (not to prepare) your lesson tomorrow, you (to get) a bad mark.
2) Winter (to come). It (to be) December now. It (to get) colder, the days (to get) shorter. It often (to snow). Soon it (to be) very cold.
3) When I (to do) my homework yesterday, I quickly (to run) to the yard, because my friends (to wait) for me there.
you do not prepare your lesson tomorrow, you will get) a bad mark.
I have a friend who must be the sweetest, shyest person in the world. His name is brittle and ancient (Luke), his age modestly intermediate (forty). He is rather short and skinny, has a thin moustache and even thinner hair on his head. Since his vision is not perfect, he wears glasses: they are small, round and frame-less.
In order not to inconvenience anyone, he always walks sideways. Instead of saying 'Excuse me', he prefers to glide by one side. If the gap is so narrow that it will not allow him to pass, Luke waits patiently until the obstruction -- be it animate or inanimate, rational or irrational -- moves by itself. Stray dogs and cats panic him, and in order to avoid them he constantly crosses from one side to of the road to another.
He speaks with a very thin, subtle voice, so inaudible that it is hard to tell if he is speaking at all. He has never interrupted anybody. On the other hand, he can never manage more than two words without somebody interrupting him. This does not seem to irritate him; in fact, he actually appears happy to have been able to utter those two words.
My friend Luke has been married for years. His wife is a thin, choleric, nervous woman who, as well as having an unbearably shrill voice, strong lungs, a finely drawn nose and a viperous tongue suffers from an uncontrollable temper and the personality of a lion tamer. Luke -- you have to wonder how -- has succeeded in producing a child named (by his mother) Juan Manuel. He is tall, blond, intelligent, distrustful, sarcastic and has a fringe. It is not entirely true that he only obeys his mother. However, the two of them have always agreed that Luke has little to offer the world and therefore choose to ignore his scarce and rarely expressed opinions.
Luke is the oldest and the least important employee of a dismal company that imports cloth. It operates out of a very dark building with black-stained wooden floors situated in Alsina street. The owner -- I know him personally -- is called don Aqueróntido -- I don't know whether that is his first name or his surname -- and he has a ferocious moustache, is bald and has a thunderous voice. He is also violent and greedy. My friend Luke goes to work dressed all in black, wearing a very old suit that shines from age. He only owns one shirt -- the one he wore for the first time on the day of his marriage -- and it has an anachronistic plastic collar. He also only owns one tie, so frayed and greasy that it looks more like a shoelace. Unable to bear the disapproving looks of don Aqueróntido, Luke, unlike his colleagues, does not dare work without his jacket on and in order to keep this jacket in good condition he wears a pair of grey sleeve-protectors. His salary is ludicrously low, but he still stays behind in the office every day and works for another three or four hours: the tasks don Aqueróntido gives him are so huge that he has no chance of accomplishing them within normal hours. Now, just after the don Aqueróntido cut his salary yet again, his wife has decided that Juan Manuel must not do his secondary studies in a state school. She has chosen to put his name down for a very costly institution in the Belgrano area. In view of the extortionate outlay this involves, Luke has stopped buying his newspaper and (an even greater sacrifice) The Reader's Digest. his two favourite publications. The last article he managed to read in the Reader's Digest explained how husbands should repress their own overwhelming personality in order to make room for the actualisation of the rest of the family group.
There is, however, one remarkable aspect to Luke: his behaviour as soon as he steps on a bus. Generally, this is what happens:
He requests a ticket and begins to look for his money, slowly. He holds up one hand to ensure that the driver keeps waiting, unsure of what to do. Luke does not hurry. In fact, I would say that the driver's impatience gives him a certain amount of pleasure. Then he pays with the largest possible number of small coins, which he delivers a few at the time, in varying amounts and at irregular intervals. For some reason, this disturbs the driver, who, apart from having to pay attention to other cars, the traffic lights, other passengers getting on or off, and having to drive the bus itself, is forced to perform complicated arithmetic. Luke aggravates the problem by including in his payment an old Paraguayan coin that he keeps for the purpose and which is invariably returned to him. This way, mistakes are usually made in the accounts and an argument ensues. Then, in a serene but firm manner, Luke begins to defend his rights, employing arguments so contradictory that it is impossible to understand what point he is actually trying to make. Finally, the driver, at the end of the last tether of his sanity and in an act of final resignation, chooses to throw out the coins -- perhaps as a means of repressing his wish to throw out Luke or, indeed, himself.
When winter comes, Luke always travels with the windows wide open. The first to suffer as a result of this is Luke himself: he has developed a chronic cough that often forces him to stay awake entire nights. During the summer, he closes his window and will not allow anyone to lower the shade that would protect him from the sun. More than once he has ended up with first-degree burns.
Because of his weak lungs, Luke is not allowed to smoke and, in fact, he hates smoking. In spite of this, once inside the bus he cannot resist the temptation to light up a cheap, heavy cigar that clogs up his windpipe and makes him cough. After he gets off, he puts away his cigar in preparation for his next journey.
Luke is a tiny, sedentary, squalid person and has never been interested in sports. But come Saturday evening, he switches on his portable radio and turns the volume up full in order to follow the boxing match. Sundays he dedicates to football and tortures the rest of the passengers with the noisy broadcasts.
The back seat is for five passengers. In spite of his very small size, Luke sits so as to allow room for only four or even three people on the seat. If four are already seated and Luke is standing up, he demands permission, in an indignant and reproachful tone, to sit down -- which he then does, managing to take up an excessive amount of space. To this end, he puts his hands in his pockets so that his elbows will remain firmly embedded in his neighbours' ribs.
Luke's resources are plentiful and diverse.
When he has to travel standing up, he always keeps his jacket unbuttoned, carefully adjusting his posture so that the lower edge of his jacket hits the face or the eyes of those sitting down.
If anyone is reading, they are easy prey for Luke. Watching him or her closely, Luke places his head near the light so as to throw a shadow on the victim's book. Every now and then he withdraws his head as if by chance. The reader will anxiously devour one or two words before Luke moves back into position.
My friend Luke knows the times when the bus will be fully packed. On those occasions, he consumes a salami sandwich and a glass of red wine. Then, with breadcrumbs and threads of salami still between his teeth and pointing his mouth towards the other passenger's noses, he walks along the vehicle shouting loudly, 'Excuse me'.
If he manages to take the front seat, he never gives it up to anyone. But should he find himself in one of the last rows, the moment he sees a woman with a child in her arms or a weak, elderly person climb on board he immediately stands up and calls very loudly to the front passenger to offer them his seat. Later he usually makes some recriminatory remark against those that kept their seats. His eloquence is always effective, and some mortally ashamed passenger gets off at the next stop. Instantly, Luke takes his place.
My friend Luke gets off the bus in a very good mood. Timidly, he walks home, staying out of the way of anyone he meets. He is not allowed a key, so he has to ring the bell. If anyone is home, they rarely refuse to open the door to him. But if neither his wife, his son nor don Aqueróntido are to be found, Luke sits on the doorstep until someone arrives.
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To open this lesson pertaining to understanidng ratios and the patterns that they create as they are presented in context, I will read a story to my students. The name of this story is, Anno's Magic Seeds. by Mitsumasa Anno (1995). While this story does not depcit a direct proportion, it does represent a linear relationship that will allow the students to understand direct proporitons in context. As I read this story, I will stop periodically to ask the students questions that will activate their thinking and motivate them to think ahead as they start to realize the pattern being represented in the story (MP2, MP3, & MP7). Some of the questions that I will ask are as follows:
Please see the attached file to see a picture of the cover of this book as well as a couple of pages to illustrate the relevance of its contents. Also, please note, the following text; Math and Literature, by Jennifer M. Bay-Williams and Sherri L. Martinie. This book provides a list of books and how those books can be used to enhance the understanding of mathematics in context.Resources ( 5 )
After reading the story, Anno's Magic Seeds. by Mitsumasa Anno (1995). I will facilitate a discussion concerning mathematics in context. During this discussion, I want to be sure to cover the following topis.
Using these topics, I will steer students toward what they will be doing over the next three days, which is to write their own storybook. the story that they have to write must be original and be a story that incorporates the concepts of ratios and proportional relationships within its contents.
To start students on their way, I will model how I would write a story involving mathematics. However, I will ensure that my story does not involve proportional relationships, as I do not want to receive a bunch of different renditions of my own story. Please see the attached PowerPoint to see my story model.
After modeling, I will then explain that my story, while it involved mathematics, does not meet the requirements for their assignment. I will let them know that their story must be original and must include ratios & proportional relationships. I will then remind them of the characteristics of ratios and proportional relationships. I will be sure to highlight the following characteristics specifically:
At this time, the students should have their stories under way. I will allow my studnets this time to develop their ideas in to something more concrete. Fro those who are struggling to really get started, I will work with them in a separate group to help them get their projects underway.
It is my hope that by the end of this class period, the students will have a good start on a story and that they are certain of the direction in which they want to take their stories. Hopefully the students will be finished, or at least close to finished with their story by the end of the period. They should only need minor editing after today.
For homewor k, the students need to fill in their stories and be prepared for the final edit the following day.
On day two of this lesson, my students will complete their final edit of their stories. I will travel the room and spend time with each students to ensure their stories meet the criteria before they start to create their final product.
The students will be provided with materials to "publish" their book (construction paper, card stock, craft tools and materials). I will encourage my students to be creative in their design of their books. In fact, I will show them different books with different styles of artwork for illustrations as well as books that are a variety of shapes. Studnets should turn in their book at the end of this class period. They iwll be allowed to take it home to finish if necessary. However, they will not be told this until the end of the class period to ensure that they work diligently and efficiently throughout the entire class period.
For homework students are to write an essay about how their book showcases the concepts of ratios and proportional relationships. They should included the content standards and key vocabulary highlighted by their book. MP2, MP3, MP4, & MP6
During day three of this lesson, we will close out this lesson. For this reason, please see the section of this lesson labeled, "Closing Summary."Resources ( 1 )
The larger the turnover ratio, the better. For instance, a large amount of credit sales in relationship to a small amount of accounts receivable indicates that the company was efficient and effective in collecting its accounts receivable. (Remember that ratios are averages. Hence, some of the accounts receivable could be very old, but they are "hidden" because other customers paid quickly.)
Turnover ratios are more accurate when they use the asset's average balances for the year (as opposed to one balance at the final instant of the accounting year). The reason is that an income statement amount reflects the total activity during the entire year.
To assist you in computing and understanding accounting ratios, we developed 24 forms that are available as part of AccountingCoach PRO.Related Q&A
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Harold Averkamp (CPA, MBA) has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years,