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Slum upgrading processdifferent programs and how well their doingin kiberaa slum in nairobikenya Essay by

slum upgrading process (different programs and how well their doing) in kibera (a slum in nairobi, kenya)

Kibera Slum Upgrading Program

Kibera slum is located on the south west side of Nairobi the capital of Kenya. It is the largest slum in Africa. With a approximated to be over a million plus people. The word `Kibera ' is derived from a Nubian name `Kibra ' meaning `forest ' or `jungle ' because there was a big forest in the are Kibera occupies ( HYPERLINK "http /www .affordablehouselingistitute .org www .affordablehouselingistitute .org

The slum originated in 1920 as a settlement scheme for Nubian soldiers whom the

colonial government rewarded fro the service at the First World War. And up to today the land the government wholly owns that Kibera slum occupies. Therefore there are no landlords in Kibera but structure owners. The structures are mostly mud houses with corrugated iron sheets or tin as roofs. Most of this structures lack basic amenities like toilets. bathrooms. roads. sewerage systems and garbage collection. Such conditions are extremely challenging for any form of human habitation At the on set of the long rains the conditions are even made worse (http /chronicle .com

This combined with many other myriad problems like poverty (people live on less than a dollar per day. high unemployment rates spread of communicable diseases high crime rate. and extremely many cases of HIV /AIDS infections the slum is remains as an epitome of worst case of human suffering ( The Economist ,2007

It is because of these inhuman conditions that various world agencies together with the Kenya Government decided to take a course of action that would strive to end this potentially explosive situation through Slum Upgrading Programs

Slum upgrading Programs is the elaborate process that is undertaken cooperatively between various stakeholders including citizens. community groups business and local authorities to try and alleviate the poor living standards of the slum dwellers. Also included among the stakeholders are international organizations like UN-Habitat. the Kenyan Government and other non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Most of the upgrading projects are geared towards transforming the slum into an area where people can live with dignity by provision of such basic necessities like water and sanitation. There is one program that I am going to discuss

Kibera slum upgrading project (KENSUP

This is a joint project between the Kenyan Government and the United Nations Human Settlement Program (UN-Habitat. The project kicked off in January 2003 and was to involve the construction of 14 blocks of flats with 770 housing units

For this project to take off some space needed to be created which meant that tan estimated 42 ,000 structures would be demolished to pave way for the modern housing units. This was projected to displace close to 400 ,000 people who were to be relocated albeit temporarily to a neighboring town called Athi River about 20 kilometers from the capital city. This is meant that workers would have to walk far distances to their working places because most of the slum dwellers walk or use commuter trains to commute to and from the industrial.

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Local Spatial and Environmental Issues of Slum Dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria

Local Spatial and Environmental Issues of Slum Dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria

Published: 3rd October, 2016 Last Edited: 14th December, 2016

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Spatial exclusion as defined by Ali Madanipour involves exclusion of people either as individual or groups from accessing all that produced space has to offer on the basis of their race, economic status, gender, nationality, or any other classification (Madanipour, 2003). This could also involve uneven spatial distribution of existing public utilities, infrastructures, and amenities within such created space. Given the variant means through which spatial exclusion could take place, contemporary studies on nature of spatial exclusion within urban context indicates the urban poor are the most affected. Their access to urban space are limited and are forced to lived in neighborhood without public utilities, infrastructures and adequate security (Davis, 2006)

With increment in socio-economic activity within urban space, people have sought to live within its borders. Living within such urban space they thought would offer better living condition and significant access to opportunities offer by urban wealth (Deshingkar, 2006). This movement into urban center has brought about a shift in the governance system and approach to spatial related issues of city configuration and set up. People migrate from lesser developed regions into developed ones, to take advantage of the opportunities they offer. This pattern of migration has led to sustained pressure on urban infrastructures and housing provision.

Unfortunate, uneven distribution of urban wealth has made it difficult for such opportunity to benefit this class of people. Urban poor are left with no option than to live in slums and squat on abandon properties (Davis, 2006), as a result of their financial status and inadequate housing provision. This people are confronted daily with future uncertainty because of their been excluded from urban planning of their neighborhood and provision of public amenities to make living comfortable. They are faced with the challenge of living with both the social, economic, environmental and health risk associated with slum habitation (UN-Habitat, 2003).

Article 25 of the United Nation Human Rights Declaration stipulates that, access to adequate, secured and decent housing is a fundamental human right for all individual in regardless of background or status within the society. (UNCHS, 1997b). This right to decent housing has become elusive, as urban poor are continually marginalized in accessing affordable housing unit within urban space. Government at different tier of administration have tried putting in place measures to guarantee this right but little result has been achieved. The various approaches and measures advocated over the years are discused extensively in chapter two of this research paper. This paper try elaborating on the various means through which the capitalist idea of neo-liberalism has come to shape cities and how poverty gap within city have become widening. The result of various intervention programs of government and international bodies such as World Bank and International monetary fund in housing provision.

Also the urban space was discussed in the chapter two of this paper, looking at the ways in which resources are been distributed and it governance system. Urban communities serves as hub where formal government activities takes place and impact impact policies are immediately felt. It is the center where the government and its subjects mediate, negiotiate and interprete the social contract required for the city continous existence (Bogaert, 2011).

As demonstrated in the chapter four of this paper, the manifestation of urban slum formation are not simply a result of failed federal laws, legislations, and socio-economic imbalanced. Slums could also be formed as result of collaspe in the equilibrium of expectation between the government and the people be governed. The successive breakdown and deteriortation in communications channels between the authority and the residences could also lead to spatial exclusion and slum formation. Spatial exclusion could also result when people are excluded in taking an active role in planning and policies on how the want their neighborhood to be organised. This Charlotte Lemaski in “A New Apartheid? The spatial. Cape Town, South Africa” term a spatial form of “Apartheid” which he believed work against the social contract between the government and citizens (Lemaski, 2004).

1.1. Statement of problem

For over 50years, Nigeria cities have been experiencing rapid urbanization as a result of sustained high population growth rate. This increase in population size can be attributed to continuously influx of people into cities from rural area and natural birth rate. The economics strength of urban centers has necessitates the increased pace of rural-urban migration. People moved into urban cities to take full advantages of the opportunities that abound therein. According to (mobogunje, 1980), he described urban areas as citadel of economic strength, increased socio activities, innovation enhance by technology and concentration of capital and industries. At this growth rate, services and infrastructures continue to lag behind, as influx rate of people into cities exceeds the infrastructural development.

The rapid population growth of Nigeria without public infrastructures to cope with it has led to poor living condition within so many cities. People have to compete for limited urban infrastructures such as housing unit, road infrastructures, health facilities, and economic opportunities. Due to viscous competition as a result of population growth, spatial exclusion becomes inevitable. People are forced to live in poorly maintained neighborhood and deterioration environment. This has also lead to increased poverty rate and unsecured urban space.

1.2.Aims and objectives

This paper intend to elaborate on the best approach through which the “Right to The City” as advocated by David Harvey can be achieved in urban settlement of Nigeria cities. The best approach through which urban poor can be given a sense of belonging, spatial justice and equality in accessing urban resources remain the cardinal objectives of study. This study also aims to give a detailed analysis of prevailing conditions of slum dweller plight in urban settlement, the factors that has come to shape their living condition and status. This involves establishing the various form of spatial exclusion and injustice as related to housing problem. Finding out what constitute their challenge in accessing quality housing unit and decent living environment in urban space of Ibadan.

Access to good housing unit and quality living condition as a right of every citizen, as over the years remain inaccessible to all. This study would try to advocate a change in the present paradigm and a change towards a more egalitarian society through which people right to space are gaurantted. This study would also take a look at the previous approaches and government policy in housing provision with intent of understanding factors responsible for their failure to address housing problems. A new template would then be suggested, using result of findings in case study area as template.

This paper objectives are set out to achieve:

  1. Understanding local spatial and environmental issues of slum dweller.
  2. Understanding the local spatial problem and suggesting how best this problem could be solved and justice within space achieved for all.
  3. Examine urban slum conditions across different background status in Ibadan, Nigeria, so as to have valuable insight information required for policy formation and approaches.
  4. Best approach that would enable the creation of an all inclusive urban settlement (an inclusive urban space)

In summary, this study aim to advocate the need for slum upgrade across urban settlement of Nigeria to make them more productive and liveable for all. This is to be achieved by highlighting the present inadequacy and effect of poor quality housing and deplorable environment on slum dwellings.

1.3.Research question

In the context of previous state interventionist and subsequent withdrawal initiaties approach, in what way has this impacted on pattern of urban settlement?

In what way could the government and other stakeholder upheld the citizen fundament right to spatial equality?


Ali Madanipour in his book “social Exclusion and Space” gave an overview of spatial exclusion as the act of excluding certain groups of resident or individual from access to all that the produced spaced has to offer on the basis of race, class, religion, income, gender, national origin, disability status, sexual orientation or other characteristics (Madanipour, 2003)

Spatial exclusion has led to systemic crisis as a result of marginalization of urban poor within space. This has led to the need to detail in clear political terms what constitute the citizen privilege and obligations as this has gotten to fore front protest and dissent by individuals and groups in the society. Ensuring spatial inclusiveness involves an immediate end to autocratic regimes and bringing needed democratic reforms with equal right. This involves request for change, prominent social and financial equity and rejection of neoliberalism movement to avoid individuals protest on the street as result of pressing economic grievances and uneven development characteristic of neoliberal policy (Bogaert, 2011).

Since the end of the 1970s, nations in the developing countries confronted serious public budgetary deficit. This compelled the government to embrace structural adjustment conformity measures as defined by the International monetary fund (IMF) stringent conditions. These structural changes in economic direction and the neoliberal reforms which took place denoted a defining moment in political landscape of most developing nations. There are no bounds to critiques and investigation of the ways in which neoliberal suppositions aligned with contemporary globalization (Parker, 2009). Yet, despite the convincing nature of this more extensive study by Harvey (2006), unequivocal detailed analyses stills need to be done. Especially in the developing countries, to explore the unexpected developments of neoliberalism existing and the particular courses in which neoliberal influence have formed the conceivable outcomes and demands of political life.

Contemporary investigation on urban destitution and poverty indicates that the poor will be poor due to their insufficient understanding of what contemporary capitalist market entails (Bush, 2004). Ray Bush contends that urban poverty arises not because of individual exclusion from neoliberalized capitalist ideas but because of his incorporation in it. Subsequent any political involvement in the slums ought to not just be seen as endeavours to ease urban destitution, but an endeavour to incorporate place and people into the capitalist market space. Besides, Bush contends that it not right to presume that economic expansion prompts reduction in poverty. As reduction in poverty relies on how economics expansion is accessed on equal basis through its distribution or re-distribution and the number of people that profits from capital accumulation.

2.1 The right to the city and spatial exclusion

David Harvey (2008) explained that “The Right to the City” involves re-inventing ourselves through recreation of our cities, with consideration to superior values of equality and social justice. David stated that in this hyperactive pace of change, the poor were being spatially excluded. They are forced to live under harsh spatial condition and their plight unnoticed within the society they lived in. It was observed that when thinking

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Slum dwellers by Sidthebohemian on DeviantArt

Today, while going out for dinner I noticed that a whole new line of slum dwellers' shanties has cropped-up along the institute walls. We all must have noticed the ever- increasing number of such dwellings along the roads or even worse, people sleeping in open, on footpath or beneath fly-overs. In metros like Delhi and Mumbai, I've seen such pitiful (sometimes sickening) sights of slum/footpath dwellers’ lives. It pains me to think how human life can be so degraded. Where from have these people come? Were all of them born thus, without a piece of roof on their heads? Why are they in this condition? These are the questions that come to my mind.

Most of these people come from places like some tribal village in Dungarpur, from the hills of Uttaranchal, or the forests of Chhattisgarh, where they have been living a respectable life, albeit within limited means. They had their land, cattle, or even small scale enterprise there. Some of them have left behind some beautiful crafts of which they were masters. As India begun to embark on the path of fast economic growth coupled with massive industrialization, their skills and abilities started to become obsolete. Further, the ‘democratic’ government in collusion with business houses took over their land for ‘developmental’ purposes at low rates of compensation without providing alternative employment or arable land. Means of livelihood dwindled down in their native places and the survival instinct brought these people to bigger cities.

Sure they use the urban infrastructure without paying for it, like filling water from some broken pipeline nearby or tiny amounts of electricity to light up a 100 watt bulb. But do we ever realize how much they contribute to the urban economy in form of cheap labor? Faces of the kaamwali, sabziwala, dhobi and the ubiquitous chhotu in the neighborhood restaurant promptly come to mind. From construction laborers to rag-pickers, they all contribute in their own way while living on the edge. They produce more than they consume. Do we ever stop to think, had these people not been living on so little or had they been paying for house rent, water and electricity, how much would their services cost us? In a way, they are subsidizing our cost of living and in the process trying to achieving their sole objective of survival. However, such is the hypocrisy of our society that we all want to benefit from the cheap services/products but when it comes to taking moral high ground we don’t think twice before branding them as illegal inhabitants. Since their lives are not formally 'registered', the society is free to disown them or even deny their existence at its convenience.

Many of us accuse that the government’s plans to rehabilitate slum-people have not been successful because they sell off their allotted flats, make money and go back to living in their shanties. I have a difference of opinion here. Given a choice, no human being would like to live a life of a rat in a 4x4 hole made with plastic rags; to get run over by some rich drunkard coming back from a late night booze party or to get washed away in floods without leaving a trace behind. If you dig deeper, a bigger reason for the rehab schemes’ failure is that not many people want to live next to a slum-dweller. “Slum-dwellers are dirty, they play loud music, they have many children, they fight all the time and they tease women and spit everywhere.” are the common reasons given. As a result the builders find it difficult to sell the free-sale flats at a price where they can recover their costs.

The idea is not to justify unpaid use of resources and encroachment of public spaces by these marginalized people; but to point out that we all are beneficiaries of this informal economy, while disowning the consequences. We should not shy away from our share of the blame.

I think..I will. I do.

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Wodewose Featured By Owner Apr 13, 2007

Excellently put, Sid. Strong, clear and intelligent.
Many years ago, on my one and only trip to India, I asked the wealthy Calcutta businessman I was staying with what became of the street people during the monsoon. He was not a bad man - far from it - but neither he nor any of his family and friends that I also asked had an answer to the question beyond a sad shake of the head and sucking of teeth. Perhaps you have a better idea? I have to say Howrah is the grimmest place I have ever passed through.

goodgirlie Featured By Owner Apr 6, 2007 Hobbyist General Artist

Yes, this is indeed a serious matter to think and work upon. We do not want slums around or see people suffering.
However, as you said that they are not living there by choice. sometimes they do because thats cheaper. I know of cases where even after been given a flat to the slum dwellers by the government, they still give it away on rent and prefer to go and stay back in the slums. Maybe because that is cheaper or that they are just used to that kind of a life.
In Mumbai, most of the slum dwellers are not poor.(there might be some though) For eg: I have seen all the possible luxuries in their houses. TV with the cable connection, fridge and so on. Not that they are not supposed to have them, but its just that if they can afford to buy all those things, they can as well get themself a good life.
Its a debatable topic. In my view, the slum dwellers are also at fault for their state.

Nazm.. उन आँखों को जब चूमा था मैंने,
मेरे होठों पे कुछ चिपक गया था,
सफ़ेद सा, खारा-खारा सा.
सुनते हैं आँसुओं में नमक होता है,
वही जम गया होगा उसकी पलकों के बालों में..

Nazmअपने राम के लिए जो बेर चुने थे उसने
थे तो वो कुछ पक्के-कुछ कच्चे, कुछ मीठे-कुछ खट्टे,
शबरी के चखने ही से शीरीं हुए थे सब के सब.
मैं भी ज़िन्दगी की शाख़ से तोड़ता हूँ
दिन का एक फल हर र

Nazm तकिये पे अब भी तुम्हारे सिर की छाप पड़ी है
बेतरतीब चादर की सलवटों में तुम्हारे जिस्म की गर्मी क़ैद है
अंधेरी हवा में तुम्हारी साँसों की नमी घुली है
बहुत देर हुई, सूरज चढ़ आय

The Kite Chaser
“Abes karo” he heard the cry from the street below. Neehar jumped out from his homework and looked out the window of his beloved roof-top room, down into the street. A Bajaj Chetak scooter was parked in the middle of the road perpendicular to his narrow lane. The forty-something owner of the scooter had just got hold of a kite. Abes karo. Rajasthani form of ‘Ab bas karo’ loosely translates to “That’s it. I got it, others please let go.” The ‘uncle’ used the kite chasers’ code to good effect to keep other contenders at bay. He wore his prize catch around his neck such that it dangled on his back like a shield and rode on. “The kite season is here already. still two months to go for Aakha Teej” wondered Neehar. But kite enthusiasts of Bikaner hardly care, for them Aakha Teej is the biggest festival of all, bigger than even Diwali. So whenever someone decides to fly the first kite, others join-in and

Of Roots and Wings..
Roots are my source: nourishing me with life-blood,
Giving me my ground, they’re the cause of my being.
Wings are my aspirations: they take me places,
Giving me my purpose, they’re the reason for my being.
But the struggle goes on,
Of roots and wings…
Roots want to keep me rooted ,
They ask me to keep close to the background,
And remain bonded by an invisible thread.
Wings, though, will have none of it.
They call me to break-away and let-go,
Flow with the destiny and explore new horizons,
Fly high and touch the skies where angels dare to tread.
Roots fear the unknown and care for my protection.
Wings dread mediocrity, inertia and stagnation.
For eternity, they have pulled me in different directions,
Tormented my soul, tore me from within, those tussles and tensions.
In life, there have been choices to make,
The kind that’d make me or break.
Never knew why I’ve had this tendency:
For all that they have given,
For all my love, longi

Safar Tanha.. � � � � �सफ़र �तन्हा
रात ये ख़ामोश, मद्धम चाँदनी का समाँ,
फैला हुआ ता'हद-ए-नज़र, सितारों भरा आसमाँ
रूई से सफेद-चमकते टुकड़े ये बादलों के,
उडाये ले जा रही, बाद-ए-शब धीरे धीरे
ओस में भीग रही हैं,

The Demons within
I haven't yet been able to lay my demons to rest.
Made up of the most bitter memories and the deepest regrets,
they reside within my head, constantly weighing me down.
Even in the daylight, when my mind is filled with so many things;
one or two of them spring-up from nowhere, taking me by surprise,
but usually these are short-lived meetings.
In the dark of the night, when I close my eyes and about to sleep,
That's the time when in numbers, out they creep,
out of the folds and crevices in my cerebrum, that they've made their hiding places,
in a matter of moments they encircle me, those disgusting figures and wicked faces.
They start dancing their despicable dance around me.
Pointing to my scars, reminding me of the time when they were freshly inflicted wounds,
the demons laugh, making shrill, cacophonous sounds.
They talk of misplaced trusts and the consequent betrayals I've seen.
They recite the stories of unfulfilled promises and aborted dreams,
and enumerate all those missed chance

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