Managers in the 21st Century
Managers nowadays do not actually do what a manager really should do back in the eighties. Changes that occurred in the new economy, the increasing use of technology in business, and the effects of globalisation towards business world have led management into a whole new dimension. New managers are expected to be able to manage on an international scale, act strategically, utilize technology, establish values, and of course, act responsibly as well. (Crainer, 1998) Henry Mintzberg once asked, "What do managers do?" After conducting his research based on a study of five CEOs, he concluded that managerial work involves interpersonal role, decisional role and informational role. And the fact is that, managers get things done through other people. Therefore, managers are required to possess certain skills and competencies which allow them to play these roles effectively and efficiently throughout the four functions of management. (Mintzberg, 1998)
First and foremost, effective managers are of course, required to have the basic management skills in order to be able to manage an organisation. Any managers has to possess certain technical skills which allow them to perform specialised task, particularly those first-line managers as they spend more time helping employees to solve work-related problems and they are mostly involved in supervising individual performance and instructing subordinates, for instance, ensuring that the products and services are being delivered to customers on a daily basis. (Robbins and Coulter, 2005) In other words, managers are required to possess "the ability to utilise tools, techniques, and procedures that are specific to a particular field." (Lewis, Goodman, and Fandt, 2004:12) In fact, managers are the first to look up for whenever employees encounter problems. (Griffin & Ebert, 2004)
Geoff Castledine, for instance, who holds the post of manufacturing plant manager at the Uncle Ben's plant in Wodonga, Victoria, needed different technical skills in order to be able to make good judgment and decision about putting in a new cooker for the pet food. Thus, he encourages integration of different technical skills where his team of managers could make a sound decision on dealing with the problems they faced. (Samson & Daft, 2003)
Any managers in an organisation would need skills that enable them to understand and get along with other people while getting the most out of them, for instance, their subordinates or colleagues in order to be able to get the jobs done and attain the organisational goals and these involves human skills.
"Managerial Skills In The 21St Century." 123HelpMe.com. 23 Feb 2017
(Griffin & Ebert, 2004) An effective manager's job is not just giving orders or supervising the employees, their responsibilities actually involve integrating themselves into the culture of their employees in the sense that they get to know the path to effective delegations, the ways in dealing with conflicts within the organisation, and of course, be a team player and comprehend the way to work efficiently with people from different backgrounds. This is because managers are in fact, the ones who determine the behaviours and morale of employees in an organisation by managing group moral force while promoting cooperation and resolve conflicts. (Gomez-Mejia, et al, 2005) Human skills of managers are crucial in making employees feel valued and inspired, which in turn, promotes a close working relationship that are fun. (Samson & Daft, 2003)
Atiq Raza, CEO of high-tech firm Raza Foundries, for instance has used human skills daily to communicate effectively with his employees. He developed his human skills so well that his employees are almost fanatically committed to him. Manager like Atiq Raza will not only being liked but as well received full supports from his team of employees. By producing a closely-associated workforce, there's nothing much but high efficiency and productivity. (Griffin & Ebert, 2004)
To be an effective manager, one must possess conceptual skills as well. Managers have to be able to think in the abstract, examine different situation and see beyond the present situation to recognise new market opportunities and threats. Conceptual skills also aid managers in determining the consequences and outcomes from their decisions. Conceptual skills are specifically needed in the success of executives in e-commerce business. For instance, the ability to anticipate how a particular business application will be affected by the Internet is clearly conceptual in nature. (Griffin & Ebert, 2004) Besides that, conceptual skills also enable top level managers to look at their organisation at large and recognise how work groups and departments associated to and affect each other. (Lewis, Goodman, and Fandt, 2004) In brief, wise and tough decisions are made only through conceptualising. (Nohria & Berkeley, 1998)
Motorola CEO Bob Galvin has set a good example of being conceptualistic in revolutionising the whole organisation. In 1983, Galvin was aware of the rumblings throughout the company that the organisational structure is not working well due to bureaucracy and he knew that Motorola was slow in responding to changes. He spread the news of a large-scale change initiative, which he neglected to say, was how. In effect, the whole organisation's officers were unsure of what they should and should not do. Thus, creativity comes in. They came up with numerous structural changes and product innovations, which in turn, Motorola emerged as the most powerful player in the cellular industry. Through his strategical and panoptic thinking, Galvin has created an innovative and forward-looking culture within the organisation. (Nohria & Berkeley, 1998)
Global Management Skills
Due to the globalisation boom since decades ago, an effective manager must provide him/herself with the ability to compete in a global environment. As businesses becoming more diversified, an effective manager should possess certain capabilities in understanding international operations and most significantly, cultural differences. As a manager who is in charge of MTV's operations in China, Li Yifei is a manager who understood both conservative Chinese television regulators and China's young urban elite. She has successfully brought MTV into China as she is familiar with the China market and she is also, a global manager who understands foreign markets and cultural differences. This in turn, enabled her to transfer MTV's corporate culture to foreign operations, and has even brought a Chinese equivalent of MTV awards into a China state-owned television, which has popularity of 150 million people. (Griffin & Ebert, 2004)
An effective manger has to possess not only the three basic management skills, but as well, demonstrate leadership skills. In order to be a superb manager, one must first, become a leader or at least, exhibits certain leadership qualities.
Leadership Skills- Coaching
It is essential that managers are effective, especially in dealing with the people around them and this requires coaching, which is part of leadership's skills. Coaching involves helping others in achieving their highest potential. Managers today realised that organisational effectiveness requires the very best effort of everyone. It is important for a manager to develop those around them and helping them to succeed by providing guidance, motivations and feedbacks as well. Managers nowadays should provide an atmosphere of empowerment by letting workers make decisions and inspiring people to boost productivity. (Lewis, Goodman, and Fandt, 2004)
As the third CEO of Novell in 1997, Eric Schmidt has come into a problem of bringing Novell back into business. There is this culture of fear' revolving within the organisation and Eric Schmidt knew that he has to keep the smart people' motivated. He found out that the engineers and technicians, which he regard as the smart people' has problems in voicing out their view. Thus, he held meetings and gave people freedom to pursue their passions. Schmidt has also let them to self-organise so that they can operate both inside and outside the management hierarchy, freely without commands or restrictions from upper level of the organisation. This in turn, has made the employees becoming more focused and inspired. (Fryer, 2001) Coaches, which are the managers, must be well aware of the barriers that hinder individual excellence and potential in order to be able to get the most out of their employees. (Lewis, Goodman, and Fandt, 2004)
Leadership Competency- Empathy
"Empathy is particularly important today as a component of leadership for at least three reasons: the increasing use of teams, the rapid pace of globalisation, and the growing need to retain talent" (Goleman,2001:16) A manager must be able to see through everyone's opinions and understands the view points of every individual around the table. Manager who has empathy are able to get down into the message beneath the words being spoken and they basically "have deep understanding of the existence and importance of cultural and ethnic differences."(Goleman, 2001:17) Outstanding managers get inside the minds of the people they are assisting and they sense how to give effective feedbacks to motivate their protégé well. (Goleman,2001)
Consider Alain Levy, the former CEO of PolyGram. Although he is one of the executives of the organisation, he is well able to close the gap between himself and his followers. Once, he helped some junior record executives in Australia choose singles off albums, which is an important task as a songs selection determines the result of the album. Levy sat down with these young noisy people and admitted himself into the group with passion, saying: "You bloody idiots" He added his voice to the noisy discussion, "You don't know what the hell you're talking about; we always have a dance track first!" Within 24 hours, the story dispersed throughout the company and since then, he started to receive comments from subordinates and being regarded as an approachable and superb manager. In fact, he knew how to get into his followers' world- one where strong, colourful language is norm- to show them that he cared. (Goffee and Jones, 2001)
Evidently, a manager needs to have the abilities to come up with the perfect plan', to ensure coordination, to possess leadership, and of course, to success. Managers today face greater challenges in accomplishing their task because it has less structure, more uncertainty, and greater reliance on leadership and human skills. (Samson & Daft, 2003) At any point, a manager must be able to reflect him/herself as the person who is capable of handling technical jobs as well as being the nice superior'. While an effective manager need to be able to think at a wider scope and deals with cross-cultural issues, he/she is also required to possess good leadership, where empathy and coaching is the key. In short, as the business world is getting more diversified, an effective manager should know how to demonstrate the skills required at the right place, at the right time.
1. Luis R. Gomez-Mejia, David B. Balkin, Robert L. Cardy, Management: People Performance Change 2nd Edition, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
2. Ricky W. Griffin & Ronald J.Ebert (2004) Business (7th Edition) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458: Pearsons Education, Inc.
3. Pamela S. Lewis, Stephen H. Goodman, Patricia M.Fandt (2004) Management: Challenges for Tomorrow's Leaders. (4th Edition). South Western, Thomson Learning.
4. Stephen P. Robbins and Mary Coulter (2005) Management (8th Edition) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458: Pearsons Education, Inc.
5. Danny Samson and Richard L Daft (2003), Management: Pacific Rim Edition, 102 Dodds Street, Southbank Victoria 3006, Imprint of Thomson, Nelson Australia Limited.
6. Stuart Crainer (1998). Key Management Ideas (3edition) Edinburgh Gate, Harlow CM20 2JE, Pearson Education Limited.
1. Daniel Goleman(2001) "What Makes a Leader?", Harvard Business Review on What Makes a Leader. pp1-26. Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163.
2. Bronwyn Fryer (2001) "Leading through Rough Times: An Interview with Novell's Eric Schmidt", Harvard Business Review on What Makes a Leader, pp176-196. Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163.
3. Robert Goffee and Gareth Jones (2001) "Why Should Anyone Be Led by You?" Harvard Business Review on What Makes a Leader, pp153-176. Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163.
4. Henry Mintzberg (1998) "The Manager's Job: Folklore and Fact", Harvard Business Review on Leadership, pp 1-36. Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163.
5. Nitin Nohria and James D. Berkeley (1998) "Whatever Happened to the Take-Charge Manager?" Harvard Business Review on Leadership, pp 199-222. Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163.
Writing Paper #2
Leadership for the Twenty First Century
University of Charleston Graduate School
Leadership for the Twenty First Century
As we enter the 21st Century there is a serious question arising concerning our capacity
to deal with the challenges. Based on a review and synthesis across a range of literatures
covering management, organization, leadership, and learning and development, this paper
identifies some of the issues, challenges, and opportunities likely to characterize the leadership
of the 21st century. This new age will be increasingly challenging in ways not before
experienced. This suggests that a new kind of leader and leadership are needed, and this paper
outlines the most compelling of current thought on leadership qualities demanded of the 21st
Century leader. Fundamental meaning of leadership has not changed since the dawn of time. It
has always been about the person in charge of the group. Being a leader has always meant having
power over people and the authority to make decisions for the group. The difference has always
been what you do with that authority. Are you a transactional, transformational or a visionary
leader, there’s multiple ways to lead. All of the listed tactics will get the job done, however,
morale and motivation are not normally associated with a dictator type of leadership. As
previously mentioned, there are many different ways to lead. The servant leader is the style
which speaks most to me.
21st century leaders are always looking ahead, spending most of their time focused on
the future. They are entrepreneurs, understanding that their organizations operate in an ever
changing environment seeking products and services to meet upcoming customer needs. 21st
century leaders are risk takers, balancing the need to take chances with the normal
responsibilities of the job. 21st century leaders are good communicators, understanding the
Leadership for the Twenty First Century
importance of effective communication at all levels. They are systematic thinkers seeking to
understand the root causes that shape the issues and challenges they will face. They look for
courses of action that will exert the highest possible output as they respond to those issues. 21st
century leaders also look for creative ways to connect their organizations to the world around
them, exploring and imagining new forms of partnership that will support their missions and
advance their strategic plans. The reason servant leadership speaks to me is because some of
the most influential leaders in recent history have changed the world with servant leadership. A
hands on leader who will motivate people and point them in the right direction is a leader I will
One of the most interesting aspects making this new millennium different is the kind of
leadership needed and, with time, the kind of leader deemed acceptable. Where for most of
recorded history leaders were expected to be stalwart, tireless, bold, decisive, and dispassionate,
amongst other extraordinary traits, the role of the contemporary leader is changing, and is a must.
This may sound as if the leader of the 21st Century is Superman or Wonder Woman, a
perpetuation of the mythic-hero leader of the past. This couldn’t be further from the truth. If
there is anything super about individuals as leaders in the new millennium it is in their ability to
collaborate; to build bridges amongst and across diverse places, people, and ideas; to create
power in the collective; and to nurture teams and communities that sustainably lead themselves.
Past and Present Leadership
The Great Man theory of leadership is the earliest established view.
In the 21stcentury . Caribbean organizations require leaders who are transformational rather than transactional because the business environment is competitive now more than ever before. Transactional leadership provides rewards for tasks being completed which is not as effective when dealing with today's organizations because it maintains the normal flow of operations. Transformational leadership involves going beyond exchanging rewards for tasks completed. It focuses on the leader acting as a role model, facilitating innovation, being inspirational so as to encourage other indivduals to go the extra mile. Skills of leaders could be acquired by individuals in transformational leadership which produces growth both on an individual and organizational level which works to the organization's advantage as it gets more out of an individual. Transformational leaders may be defined as those who have a strong vision and a sense of mission for the company, gives personal attention, coaches and often serve as mentors. These leaders are able to inspire and motivate their followers to go beyond their own self-interests in order to achieve the goals of the organization. The traditional management function of leading has been called transactional leadership . Transactional leaders guide and motivate their followers to achieve the established goals. In the 21st .
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Running Head: LEADERSHIP THEORIES Leadership Theories Marlene Fain Introduction The 21stcentury construct of leadership is emerging as vastly different from past leadership directives, many organizations and the people they employ, are increasingly unaccepting of the authoritive, dictatorial, inflexible styles of management historically used by many organizational cultures, supposedly to ensure high profits and maximum staff performance. The traditional view of leadership is based on assumptions of people's powerlessness, lack of personal vision and inability to master the forces of change, deficits which can be remedied only by a few exceptional leaders (Senge, 1990). A new philosophy of leadership is emerging. Dubbed "post-heroic" leadership (Huey, 1994), based on bottom-up transformation fueled by shared power and community building. This new philosophy, presents the point of view that everyone has leadership qualities, that can be unified and drawn forth as needed, contingently or situationally when working with others on vital common issues. In effect creating "Communities of commitment" (Kofman & Senge, 1993) that represent a shift from competition and self-centeredness, to shared power. From this point of view, leadership development.
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How Are Leaders Leading In the 21stCentury . Tony Hsieh Sharee Steed Dr. John E. DiBenedetto, Professor BUS 520 September 8th, 2014 “Your personal core values define who you are, and a company's core values ultimately define the company's character and brand. For individuals, character is destiny. For organizations, culture is destiny.” ― Tony Hsieh, Delivering Happiness: A Path to Profits, Passion, and Purpose Provide a brief background of the CEO. Tony Hsieh is the now the active CEO of Zappos. His amazing vision for his organization is built on ten core values. The belief that he stands on is, if one can get the culture right, mostly everything, like great customer service, or building a great long-term brand, or passionate employees and customers will happen as expected on its own. In 1995, he received a B.A. in Computer Science from Harvard University. Hsieh originally got involved with Zappos as an Advisor and investor in 1999 two months after it was founded Hsieh joined the Zappos team full time in 2000. Hsieh has served as the director of Everyone.net, Inc. and Zappos.com. Continuing to expand, the now CEO of Zappos, is the founder and partner the company VegasTechFund. Hsieh continue to serve as the general manager of Venture Frogs, LLC. Hsieh serves as the Chief Executive Officer of Zappos.com, Inc. Under the leadership of Hsieh, “Zappos has grown gross merchandise sales from $1.6M in 2000 to over $1.
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21stCentury adding more responsibility to traditional HR roles | Houston Business Journal Changing and overlapping responsibilities plus diminishing staff have placed a burden on HR departments as they struggle to change with the times. “The traditional role of HR in the 21stcentury is changing into integrating HR into organizational business planning, which adds another dimension to the delivery of HR services,” says Frank Abbott, a corporate trainer program manager for Houston Community College’s Corporate College. “In this new role, HR professionals who are managers and supervisors must take on the emerging roles of business partner, change agent, and leader in new organizational structures different from the past.” This becomes more challenging, he says, as HR professionals try to meet this challenge while continuing day-to-day operational and political management of HR. These new expectations and demands, combined with a steady decrease in HR staff (one-third of the HR community will be eligible to retire in the next five years, Abbott says), means a once-stable occupation is entering uncharted territory. On top of theses changes, he says, many HR departments must do all of this with a downsized staff that does not have the expertise needed to meet the demands. “The question is: Are HR professionals capable of meeting those challenges and what must they do to meet those challenges?” Abbott asks. “Another.
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21stCENTURY MANAGEMENT Management function is one of the most significant social activities. Management has been present in this world since the commencement of societies. Administration is the skill, or knowledge, of reaching targets via individuals. As administrators also organize, administration may be inferred to mean accurately “looking over” i.e. making sure people do what they are supposed to do. More broadly, management is the process of designing and maintaining and environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims (Koontz and Weihrich 1990, p. 4) In nascent cultures almost every individual had to do manual labor. To avoid this burden from their shoulders, every person remains with the choices of going into politics or religion. Educated metropolitan societies headed to greater expertise, produced innovative professional substitutes to manual labor, and a work environment is established where the person who is working is differentiated with non-working class. Today in this 21stcentury . business is facing with many challenges like globalization, information technology, diversity and ethics. So a manger should know that how to adapt frequent changes in the business environment, what are the need of his product/service beneficiary which is the consumer and in which way he/she can take maximum output with effort from his/her resources. Philosophies.
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This is the age of information in which knowledge and knowledge workers are major resources of modern society. New managers must accept and excel at leadership responsibilities to perform as: a global strategist (understands interconnections among nations, cultures and economies, plans and acts with due consideration of them); a master of technology (comfortable with information technology, understands technology trends and their implications, able to use technology to best advantage); an effective politician (understands growing complexity of government regulations and the legal environment, able to relate them with the interests of the organisation); and an inspiring leader (attracts highly motivated workers and inspires them with a high performance culture where individuals and teams can do their best work). (Text book) What are the implications of this future evolutionary imperative for business and management? First, in the domain of vision, mission and values organizations have to discover a higher purpose which can inspire and trigger this higher evolution within the organization. Second, in the domain of Human Resources Development, there must be a greater attention to the development of the moral, aesthetic, intuitive and spiritual faculties and potentialities of employees which will lead to their higher evolution. Third, in the domain of Organizational Development, creating a corporate environment and culture which felicitates this higher.
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that emotional intelligence qualities are essential to leadership in the twenty-first century . In this essay we will also see different management styles such as autocratic, bureaucratic and authoritarian, which also influence on businesses performances in the twenty first century . Emotional intelligence plays a very important part in leadership but it is not essential. Leaders that use autocratic, bureaucratic and authoritarian leadership do not necessarily have emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the ability to look at emotions by identifying them and expressing them, and using emotions to motivate ourselves and to motivate others as stated by Salovey and Mayer. (Cited by Yitshaki, 2012). As mentioned above there will also be other leadership styles mentioned which are autocratic leadership (which is a manager or leader that is in control of the organisation, autocratic leaders make all or most of the decisions in relation to the company as stated by Trask, K, Rice, R, Anchors, S, & Lilieholm, R (2009)), bureaucratic leadership ( this style is similar to the autocratic style but get authority from previous rules and regulations, corporate management and rules of the organisation. Bureaucratic managers dictate to others the decisions made by corporate management or higher authorities in an autocratic way as stated by Trask, K, Rice, R.
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‘To survive the 21stcentury . we are going to need a new generation of leaders’ (Warren Bennis 1992). Critically discuss this statement using appropriate theory and relevant examples to support your answer. The twenty-first century has been a key period in the alteration of the dimensions of managerial and leadership change throughout the business world. A key development within this sector has been ethical leadership ; this essay will examine the dimensions of ethical leadership . the disconnections between the role of a manager and the role of a leader, and the necessary capabilities that leaders will need to possess in the present day in order to generate success and prosperity. The way in which the 21stcentury is evolving illustrates that the conventional leadership styles and leaders of previous times are inadequate; and the methods used previously would not prove to be copious in the 21st society. This can be seen via the continual expansion of the growth of inequalities which pervades the workplace, threating to devastate the ecosystem that supports human life (Kennet and Heinemann, 2006,1). This is also reflected through the amount of income the UK public earn; with the top 10% earning 40% off all personal income with the other 90% only receiving 60%. The most astonishing figures showing that the top 0.1 receive 4.3% of all.
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