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4 River Valley Civilization Definition Essay

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Were there more than 4 River Valley Civilizations? History Stack Exchange

If you graduated U.S. Public School education system(k-12), you might have learned about the 4 great River Valley Civilizations: Indus, HuangHe, Nile, Euphrates. They were basically the birthing ground for Modern Eurasian and African (and American) history.

There are a lot of other river valleys in the world and I was wondering if anyone here knows a thing or 2 about them. If you do, can you provide any articles (or internet links) that has evidence indicating the existence of other Early River Valley Civilizations.

--Also is this a question I can ask on this Stack Exchange? Thanks in advance.

asked Jan 6 '16 at 18:44

closed as too broad by Semaphore. Mark C. Wallace. Gwenn. CGCampbell. Tom Au Jan 11 '16 at 22:09

There are either too many possible answers, or good answers would be too long for this format. Please add details to narrow the answer set or to isolate an issue that can be answered in a few paragraphs. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center. please edit the question.

You could look at any populated river valley and define that as a civilisation. the distinction of the Nile, the Yellow River, the Tigris and Euphrates, and the Indus Rivers were that they were also considered the cradles of civilisation. Is that what you're really asking? – Semaphore Jan 6 '16 at 18:54

As for the actual sites, the Olmec were in a lowland (swamp) area, so lots of rivers. However, the Coatzacoalcos river seems to be the likeliest original river. The Caral seem to have originated in the Supe river valley. We aren't sure about the New Guineans. There could easily have been a mother river valley, we just don't know. – T.E.D. ♦ Jan 6 '16 at 20:52

Other articles

Indus Valley Civilization - Ancient History Encyclopedia

Indus Valley Civilization

by Cristian Violatti
published on 30 October 2013

The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. Evidence of religious practices in this area date back approximately to 5500 BCE. Farming settlements began around 4000 BCE and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first signs of urbanization. By 2600 BCE, dozens of towns and cities had been established, and between 2500 and 2000 BCE the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak.

The Life of the Indus Valley Civilization

Two cities, in particular, have been excavated at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro on the lower Indus, and at Harappa, further upstream. The evidence suggests they had a highly developed city life; many houses had wells and bathrooms as well as an elaborate underground drainage system. The social conditions of the citizens were comparable to those in Sumeria and superior to the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians. These cities display a well-planned urbanization system.


The evidence suggests they had a highly developed city life; many houses had wells and bathrooms as well as an elaborate underground drainage system.

There is evidence of some level of contact between the Indus Valley Civilization and the Near East. Commercial, religious, and artistic connections have been recorded in Sumerian documents, where the Indus valley people are referred to as Meluhhaites and the Indus valley is called Meluhha. The following account has been dated to about 2000 BCE: "The Meluhhaites, the men of the black land, bring to Naram-Sin of Agade all kind of exotic wares." (Haywood, p. 76, The Curse of Agade)

The Indus Civilization had a writing system which today still remains a mystery: all attempts to decipher it have failed. This is one of the reasons why the Indus Valley Civilization is one of the least known of the important early civilizations of antiquity. Examples of this writing system have been found in pottery. amulets, carved stamp seals, and even in weights and copper tablets.

Another point of debate is the nature of the relationship between these cities. Whether they were independent city-states or part of a larger kingdom is not entirely clear. Because the writing of the Indus people remains undeciphered and neither sculptures of rulers nor depictions of battles and military campaigns have been found, evidence pointing in either direction is not conclusive.

Advertisement Decline of the Indus Valley Civilization

By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned. The reasons for this decline are not entirely clear, but it is believed that the drying up of the Saraswati River, a process which had begun around 1900 BCE, was the main cause. Other experts speak of a great flood in the area. Either event would have had catastrophic effects on agricultural activity, making the economy no longer sustainable and breaking the civic order of the cities.

Around 1500 BCE, a large group of nomadic cattle-herders, the Aryans, migrated into the region from central Asia. The Aryans crossed the Hindu Kush mountains and came in contact with the Indus Valley Civilization. This was a large migration and used to be seen as an invasion, which was thought to be the reason for the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization, but this hypothesis is not unanimously accepted today.

Thus, the Indus Valley Civilization came to an end. Over the course of several centuries, the Aryans gradually settled down and took up agriculture. The language brought by the Aryans gained supremacy over the local languages: the origin of the most widely spoken languages today in south Asia goes back to the Aryans, who introduced the Indo-European languages into the Indian subcontinent. Other features of modern Indian society, such as religious practices and caste division, can also be traced back to the times of the Aryan migrations. Many pre-Aryan customs still survive in India today. Evidence supporting this claim includes: the continuity of pre-Aryan traditions; practices by many sectors of Indian society; and also the possibility that some major gods of the Hindu pantheon actually originated during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization and were kept "alive" by the original inhabitants through the centuries.

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The term “Aryan” has had a history filled with controversy. The source of the English word Aryan comes from the Sanskrit word ārya, which is the self-designation used by the Vedic Indic people who migrated into the Indian subcontinent about 1500 BCE. The Sanskrit term has a cognate in the Iranian word arya, which is also a self-designation. Both. [continue reading ]

Indus valley civilization essay - Essay Writing Service Worth Your Attention

Indus valley civilization essay

Otto February 07, 2016

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What does indus valley civilization mean?

Definitions for indus valley civilization

Indus Valley Civilization (ProperNoun)

an ancient civilization from the Indus river valley; also the Harappan civilization

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Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab; it extended west to the Makran coast of Balochistan, north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Daimabad in Maharashtra. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest known ancient civilization. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft and metallurgy. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses. The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was located at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India. Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. Up to 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements have been found, out of which 96 have been excavated, mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro, Dholavira, Kalibanga, and Rakhigarhi.


The numerical value of indus valley civilization in Chaldean Numerology is: 6

The numerical value of indus valley civilization in Pythagorean Numerology is: 5

Translations for indus valley civilization Translation Word of the Day Citation Definitions & Translations

Short essay on Indus Valley Civilization

Short essay on Indus Valley Civilization

Some four or five thousand years ago a highly civilized community flourished in the region of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan d the fringes of Uttar Pradesh popularly known as Indus Valley realization. The civilization was first discovered in 1921 at Harappa by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, so it is also known as Harappa Civilization.

Indus valley civilization was extended in a large area. It was extended from Mand (in Jammu) in the north to Diamabad in the south and from Alamgirpur (in U.P.) in the north east to Sutkagendur (in Baluchistan) in the west. This unique civilization existed between 2500 B.C. and 1500 B.C.

More than 300 sites belonging to this civilization have been excavated and much are still to be known. Out of these sites, the most important were that of Harappa and Mohanjodaro. Other important cities were Chanhudaro in Sindh, Lothal in Gujarat, Kalibanga in Rajasthan and Banwali in Haryana.

1. Situated in Montgomery district in Punjab now in Pakistan, on the left bank of the river Ravi.

2. The city was well planned and divided into two parts-citadel (raised portion) and lower part.

1. It was excavated in the year 1922 by Rakhaldas Banerjee.

2. Situated in Larkana district in Sindh now in Pakistan on the right bank of the river Indus (Sindhu).

3. City followed grid planning.

4. Citadel was made on a mound'.

1. It was excavated in the year 1931 by M. G. Majumdar.

2. Situated in Sindh now in Pakistan.

3. The city had no citadel.

1. It was excavated in the year 1957 by S.R. Rao and M. S. Vats.

2. Situated in Gujarat near Gulf of Cambay.

3- Rice husks were found only at Lothal and Rangpur.

1. It was excavated in the year 1953 by A. Ghosh.

2. It was situated in Rajasthan on the bank of the river Ghagar.