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Cyclosarin Synthesis Essay

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Cyclosarin synthesis essay

Cyclosarin

Cyclosarin or GF (cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance used as a chemical weapon. It is a member of the G-series family of nerve agents. a group of chemical weapons discovered and synthesized by a German team led by Dr. Gerhard Schrader. The major nerve gases are the G agents, sarin (GB), soman (GD), tabun (GA), and the V agents such as VX. The original agent, tabun, was discovered in Germany in 1936 in the process of work on organophosphorus insecticides. Next came sarin, soman and finally the most toxic, cyclosarin, a product of commercial insecticide laboratories prior to World War II .

Chemical characteristics

Like its predecessor sarin. cyclosarin is a liquid organophosphate nerve agent. Its physical characteristics are, however, quite different from sarin.

At room temperature. cyclosarin is a colorless liquid whose odor has been variously described as sweet and musty, or resembling peaches or shellac. Unlike sarin, cyclosarin is a persistent liquid, meaning that it has a low vapor pressure and therefore evaporates relatively slowly, about 69 times slower than sarin and 20 times slower than water.

Also unlike sarin, cyclosarin is flammable. with a flash point of 94 °C (201 °F).

Cyclosarin (GF) also demonstrates greater toxicity than sarin (GB) in humans. Sarin has a median lethal dose (LD50 ) of 5 mg (for a 70 kg human), while GF has an LD50 of 1.2 mg. The median lethal concentration and time (LCt50 ) of cyclosarin is 50 mg⋅min/m 3. which is half that of GB.

First synthesized during World War II as part of Nazi Germany 's chemical weapons research on organophosphate compounds after their military potential was discovered, cyclosarin was also studied later in the United States and Great Britain in the early 1950s as part of a systematic study of potential nerve agents. It was never selected for mass production. however, due to its precursors being more expensive than those of other G-series nerve agents such as sarin (GB).

To date, Iraq is the only nation known to have manufactured significant quantities of cyclosarin for use as a chemical agent and to deploy it in battle. During the Iran–Iraq war (1980–1988), the Iraqis used sarin and cyclosarin together as a mixture. This was likely done to obtain a more persistent chemical agent as well as in response to an existing embargo placed on alcohol precursors for sarin. [ 1 ]

Binary weapons

Like other nerve agents, cyclosarin can be shipped in binary munitions .

A cyclosarin binary weapon would most likely contain methylphosphonyl difluoride in one capsule, with the other capsule containing either cyclohexanol or a mixture of cyclohexylamine and cyclohexanol.

GB-GF mixtures

Iraq fielded munitions filled with a mixture of GB (sarin) and GF (cyclosarin). Tests on mice indicated that GB-GF mixtures have a relative toxicity between GF and GB. [ 2 ]

In popular culture

Cyclosarin was central to the plot of the television episode "Chuck Versus the Mask" (Chuck. season 3, episode 7).

References
  • CBWInfo.com. (2003). Factsheets on Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents: CF. Retrieved October 30, 2004
  • United States Central Intelligence Agency. (July 15, 1996). Stability of Iraq's Chemical Weapon Stockpile Retrieved October 30, 2004
  • Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses. (Oct. 19, 2004). Chemical Properties of Sarin and Cyclosarin Retrieved October 30, 2004
  • Press release from Centcom confirming that the chemical munitions found by the Poles dated back to before the 1991 Gulf War, and, thus, could not represent a threat.
  • A laboratory history of chemical warfare agents (2006) edition 2 Jared Ledgard.

StateMaster - Encyclopedia: Cyclosarin

Colorless liquid.
Odor sweet, musk, peaches, shellac

Cyclosarin or GF (Cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the world's most dangerous weapons of war. It is the most obscure member of the G-series family of nerve agents. a group of chemical weapon discovered and synthesized by a German team, led by Dr. Gerhard Schrader. during or soon after World War II. Created myself using CS ChemDraw File links The following pages link to this file: Cyclosarin Categories: GFDL images. Dr. Gerhard Schrader (25 Feb. 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid. The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. The vapor pressure is the pressure (if the vapor is mixed with other gases, the partial pressure) of a vapor. The flash point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mix with air. Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. Color is an important part of the visual arts. A nerve agent or nerve gas is a highly toxic chemical substance that poisons the nervous system and disrupts bodily functions necessary for life. Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). Dr. Gerhard Schrader (25 Feb. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb.


As a chemical weapon. it is classified as a weapon of mass destruction by the United Nations according to UN Resolution 687. and its production and stockpiling was outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 was adopted at the 2981st meeting on April 3, 1991, to welcome the restoration of the independence of Kuwait. Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 at Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preperatory Commission Parties 170 The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and. 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003).


On July 2nd, it was widely reported that Polish Soldiers had found Iraqi chemical munitions containing nerve agents -- some newspapers said cyclo-sarin. Less widely reported was that these munitions were over a dozen years old, so any nerve agents would have long since have degraded

Chemical Characteristics

Like its predecessor, sarin. cyclosarin is a liquid organophosphate nerve agent. Its physical characteristics are quite different from sarin, however. Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance. An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for any organic compound containing phosphorus. A nerve agent or nerve gas is a highly toxic chemical substance that poisons the nervous system and disrupts bodily functions necessary for life.


At room temperature, cyclosarin is a colorless liquid whose odor has been variously described as sweet and musty, and resembling peaches or shellac. Unlike sarin, cyclosarin is a persistent liquid, meaning that it has a low vapor pressure. and therefore evaporates relatively slowly: about 69 times more slowly than sarin and 20 times more slowly than water. Its military value is therefore much greater as a liquid chemical weapon. The vapor pressure is the pressure (if the vapor is mixed with other gases, the partial pressure) of a vapor.


Also unlike sarin, cyclosarin is flammable, with a flash point of 94°C (201 °F).

Historical Notes

Cyclosarin was first synthesized during World War II as part of the systematic study of organophosphates undertaken by the Germans after their potential military utility was identified. It was again looked at in the early 1950 's by both the United States and Great Britain as they undertook a systematic study of potential nerve agents (some U.S. sources suggest that interest in GF was stimulated by work undertaken in "another country"). However, the higher cost of the precursors for GF relative to those for GB along with its lower toxicity prevented it from being chosen for manufacture.Iraq is the only country in which large amounts of cyclosarin have ever been produced for use as a chemical warfare agent. Also Iraqis used sarin and cyclosarin as a mixture against Iran in 1986-1988. As with most issues surrounding the Iraqi chemical weapons programs, the basis for their decision to produce GF is somewhat unclear. However, it seems likely that the choice was driven by a combination of a desire for a more persistent agent combined with problems with obtaining alcohol precursors for sarin (due to an embargo).As noted above, Iraq also fielded weapons filled with mixtures of sarin and cyclosarin. These mixtures appear to have been produced in part for purposes of increasing persistence and in part because of raw material issues.

World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb. 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance. Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance.

Miscellaneous Facts

Taken from Image:WMD.png by Wapcaplet File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. A blood agent (also called a cyanogen agent) is a compound that prevents the normal transfer of oxygen from the blood to the body tissues, resulting in chemical asphyxiation. Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons. Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula H-C≡N. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. A vesicant (also known as a blister agent) is a chemical agent that causes blistering of the skin. Chemical structure of Lewisite Lewisite is a chemical compound from a chemical family called arsines. Chemical Structure of Mustard Gas Compound Mustard gas (HD) is a chemical compound that was first used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In pure form, it is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid at room temperature and causes blistering of the skin. A nerve agent or nerve gas is a highly toxic chemical substance that poisons the nervous system and disrupts bodily functions necessary for life. Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance. Soman or GD (O-Pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extrememly toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. VE (S-(Diethylamino)ethyl O-ethyl ethylphosphonothioate) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve gas. VG (also called Amiton or Tetram) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve agent. VM (Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, S-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl) O-ethyl ester) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve agent. 1. Categories: Chemical weapons | Stub. General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. Diphosgene (ClCO2CCl3) Diphosgene (Trichloromethyl chloroformate, ClCO2CCl3) is a chemical originally developed for chemical warfare, a few months after the first use of phosgene. The term incapacitating agent is defined by the U.S. Department of Defense as An agent that produces temporary physiological or mental effects, or both, which will render individuals incapable of concerted effort in the performance of their assigned duties. QNB redirects here. KOLOKOL-1 is an opiate-derived incapacitating agent. A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). Pepper spray is a non-lethal chemical agent which is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs. chemical structure of CS gas CS gas (commonly called tear gas), or ortho-chloro-benzal malonitrile, is a usually non-lethal riot control agent. Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons | Less-lethal weapons. CR gas, chemically dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepine, is a lachrymatory.

Binary weapons

Like other nerve agents, Cyclosarin can be shipped in binary munitions. Binary Chemical Weapons are chemical weapons wherein the toxic agent is not contained within the weapon in its active state, but in the form of two chemical precursors, physically separated within the weapon. Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management.


A cyclosarin binary weapon would most likely contain methyphosphonyldifluoride in one capsule with the other capsule containing either cyclohexanol or a mixture of cyclohexylamine and cyclohexanol.

GB-GF Mixtures

According to CBWInfo.com. Iraq fielded munitions filled with a mixture of GB (sarin ) and GF (cyclosarin). Tests on mice indicated that GB-GF mixtures have a relative toxicity between GF and GB. Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance.

References
  • CBWInfo.com. (2003). Factsheets on Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents: CF. Retrieved October 30, 2004
  • United States Central Intelligence Agency. (Jul. 15, 1996). Stability of Iraq's Chemical Weapon Stockpile Retrieved October 30, 2004
  • Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses. (Oct. 19, 2004). Chemical Properties of Sarin and Cyclosarin Retrieved October 30, 2004
  • Press release from Centcom confirming that the chemical munitions found by the Poles dated back to before the 1991 Gulf War, and, thus, could not represent a threat.

Categories: Anticholinesterases | Chemical weapons

Cyclosarin definition

Cyclosarin Definition of the noun Cyclosarin

What does Cyclosarin mean as a name of something?

  1. Cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate, an extremely toxic substance used as a chemical weapon.
Explanation

Cyclosarin or GF is an extremely toxic substance used as a chemical weapon. It is a member of the G-series family of nerve agents, a group of chemical weapons discovered and synthesized by a German team led by Dr. Gerhard Schrader. The major nerve gases are the G agents, sarin, soman, tabun, and the V agents such as VX. The original agent, tabun, was discovered in Germany in 1936 in the process of work on organophosphorus insecticides. Next came sarin, soman and finally the most toxic, cyclosarin, a product of commercial insecticide laboratories prior to World War II.

Printed dictionaries and other books with definitions for Cyclosarin

Click on a title to look inside that book (if available):

The Dictionary of Homeland Security and Defense (2006)

by Margaret R. O'Leary

Like its predecessor, sarin, cyclosarin is a liquid organophosphate nerve agent. Its physical characteristics are quite different from sarin, however. At room temperature, cyclosarin is a colorless liquid whose odor has been variously described.

The Preparatory Manual of Chemical Warfare Agents Third Edition (2012)

by Jared Ledgard

As with the usual nerve agents, cyclosarin is easily decomposed by bleaching powder or by alkalies. It can be disseminated using aerosols, explosives munitions, atomizers or humidifiers, or foggers. Cyclosarin is a fast acting nerve agent.

Chemical Warfare Agents (2007)

Toxicology and Treatment by Timothy T. Marrs, Robert L. Maynard, Frederick Sidell

Although cyclosarin is a powerful acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, rapid ageing of the inhibited enzyme as seen with soman, does not occur, while spontaneous reactivation does (Worek et al. 1998) (see below). Qualitatively, the toxic effects of.

e-Study Guide for: Pharmacology for Nursing Care by Richard A. Lehne, ISBN 9781416037446 (2012)

by Cram101 Textbook Reviews

Cyclosarin. Cyclosarin is an extremely toxic substance used as a chemical weapon. It is a member of the Gseries family of nerve agents, a group of chemical weapons discovered and synthesized by a German team led by Dr. Gerhard.

Historical Dictionary of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare (2007)

by Benjamin C. Garrett, John Hart

CYCLOSARIN credibility of Curveball's information, US. officials used this information to support the case for attacking Iraq in 2003. Subsequent investigations in Iraq failed to validate the allegations of such a mobile BW facility. See also.

Encyclopedia of Toxicology (2005)

by Bruce Anderson, Ann de Peyster, Shayne C. Gad, P.J. Bert Hakkinen, Michael Kamrin, Betty Locey, Harihara M. Mehendale, Carey Pope, Lee Shugart

Toxicokinetics Cyclosarin canbe absorbed into the body byallroutes of exposure. Itis usuallyliquid inits normalstate,but will volatilizeif heated to form vapor oraerosol. Itis consideredto have an intermediate persistence with an evaporation rate.

The Central Intelligence Agency: An Encyclopedia of Covert Ops, Intelligence Gathering, and Spies [2 volumes] (2015)

An Encyclopedia of Covert Ops, Intelligence Gathering, and Spies by Jan Goldman Ph.D.

Baghdad has begun renewed production of chemical warfare agents, probably including mustard, sarin, cyclosarin. and VX. Its capability was reduced during the UNSCOM inspections and is probably more limited now than it was at the time of.

Encyclopedia of Military Science (2013)

by G. Kurt Piehler

cyclosarin (GF), or methylphosphonothioic acid (VX) inhibit the neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase, which can arrest the victim's respiratory functions within minutes. Vesicants, or.

Concise Pocket Medical Dictionary (2015)

Cyclosarin Organophosphorus nerve agent. Cycloserine Broad-spectrum antibiotic used in tuberculosis. Cyclosporine Immune suppressant used in transplant patients. Cyclotron A particle accelerator in which the particle is rotated between.

Encyclopedia of the Persian Gulf War (1998)

as 20,000 soldiers might have been exposed to low levels of toxic chemicals shortly after the war, when army engineers demolished an Iraqi ammunition bunker containing cyclosarin. a deadly nerve gas, near the village of Khamisiyah.

Cyclosarin synthesis essay

Cyclosarin

Colorless liquid.
Odor sweet, musk, peaches, shellac

Cyclosarin or GF (cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the world's most dangerous weapons of war. It is a member of the G-series family of nerve agents. a group of chemical weapons discovered and synthesized by a German team led by Dr. Gerhard Schrader. The major nerve gases are the G agents, sarin (GB), soman. tabun. and the V agents such as VX. The original agent, tabun, was discovered in Germany in 1936 in the process of work on organophosphorus insecticides. Next came sarin, soman and finally the most toxic, VX. a product of commercial insecticide laboratories prior to World War II.

Chemical characteristics

Like its predecessor sarin, cyclosarin is a liquid organophosphate nerve agent. Its physical characteristics are quite different from sarin, however.

At room temperature. cyclosarin is a colorless liquid whose odor has been variously described as sweet and musty, or resembling peaches or shellac. Unlike sarin, cyclosarin is a persistent liquid, meaning that it has a low vapor pressure and therefore evaporates relatively slowly, about 69 times more slowly than sarin and 20 times more slowly than water.

Also unlike sarin, cyclosarin is flammable. with a flash point of 94°C (201 °F).

Historical notes

Cyclosarin was first synthesized during World War II as part of the systematic study of organophosphates undertaken by the Germans after their potential military utility was identified. It was again looked at in the early 1950 's by both the United States and Great Britain as they undertook a systematic study of potential nerve agents (some U.S. sources suggest that interest in GF was stimulated by work undertaken in "another country"). However, the higher cost of the precursors for GF relative to those for GB along with its lower toxicity prevented it from being chosen for manufacture.Iraq is the only country in which large amounts of cyclosarin have ever been produced for use as a chemical warfare agent. Also Iraqis used sarin and cyclosarin as a mixture against Iran in 1986-1988. As with most issues surrounding the Iraqi chemical weapons programs, the basis for their decision to produce GF is somewhat unclear. However, it seems likely that the choice was driven by a combination of a desire for a more persistent agent combined with problems with obtaining alcohol precursors for sarin (due to an embargo).As noted above, Iraq also fielded weapons filled with mixtures of sarin and cyclosarin. These mixtures appear to have been produced in part for purposes of increasing persistence and in part because of raw material issues.

Binary weapons

Like other nerve agents, cyclosarin can be shipped in binary munitions.

A cyclosarin binary weapon would most likely contain methylphosphonyldifluoride in one capsule, with the other capsule containing either cyclohexanol or a mixture of cyclohexylamine and cyclohexanol.

GB-GF Mixtures

According to CBWInfo.com. Iraq fielded munitions filled with a mixture of GB (sarin) and GF (cyclosarin). Tests on mice indicated that GB-GF mixtures have a relative toxicity between GF and GB.

References
  • CBWInfo.com. (2003). Factsheets on Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents: CF. Retrieved October 30, 2004
  • United States Central Intelligence Agency. (Jul. 15, 1996). Stability of Iraq's Chemical Weapon Stockpile Retrieved October 30, 2004
  • Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses. (Oct. 19, 2004). Chemical Properties of Sarin and Cyclosarin Retrieved October 30, 2004
  • Press release from Centcom confirming that the chemical munitions found by the Poles dated back to before the 1991 Gulf War, and, thus, could not represent a threat.de:Cyclosarin