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Early Voting Research Paper

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Electronic Voting Research Paper - 1716 Words

Electronic Voting Research Paper

Introduction
Voting is the main way for citizens to translate their preferences to seats in legislature. Therefore, it is critical and extremely important for a democratic republican country like the United States to have a well organized voting system. The history of voting could be traced back to the 17th century colonial days when shouting and the show of hands would be an indication of casting votes. This method often led to chaos, fraud, repeat votes or over voting of election candidates. To reduce such loopholes, it was soon replaced by paper ballots in the 1770’s then electronic voting in the 1890’s. The change in the voting system over time emphasized certain criteria that a “good” voting system must accomplish. It must provide fast results. The anonymity of voters must be preserved in order to protect voters from malevolent candidates. Regardless of age, sex, infirmity or disability, a good voting system must be simple and usable. Electronic voting (e-voting) fulfills those requirements. Such benefits are followed by flaws and weaknesses that expose the system to threats and technical difficulties, ranging from system failure to altering results by hacking. The following background and arguing facts will expose the pros and cons of electronic voting in its developmental stage and whether it is trustworthy for measuring vote count. Background

Electronic voting system refers to the use of electronic means for casting votes and counting votes. So, what are electronic voting machines? Electronic voting technology includes punched cards, optical scan voting systems, and specialized voting kiosks, for example, direct-recording electronic voting systems, or DRE. The transmission of ballots and votes can be done via telephones, private computer networks, or the Internet. People have many accesses to e-voting. In general, there are two main ways. They could use the voting machines at the polling stations or they could vote through remote e-voting whether voting is performed within the voter’s sole influence through mobile devices or the internet (Wikipedia). Polling stations tend to be physically supervised by representatives of government or private constitutional authority, unlike remote e-voting which people can vote in their own private and comfortable space. Direct-recording electronic systems (DRE) completely eliminate paper ballots from the voting process (Kohno, Stubblefield, Rubin, Wallach; 2004). Generally, voters come to polling stations with an ID to prove that they are eligible for voting. They are then provided with a pin number or a smartcard that could be entered to a touch-screen voting machine in order to proceed voting for the candidate of their choice. The summary of each candidate would be shown, such as their background, their policies and their stand on certain political issue. Voter can change their mind in the process of selecting candidates until they submit their final choice. The votes are instantly recorded and counted in the system that will save more time than the original paper ballots casting. Before Election Day, election officials use EMS (election management system) to set up the election (Weldemariam, Kemmerer, Villafiorita; 2011). Ballots definition files are loaded into DRE machines, CF cards are installed and printers are assigned for each DRE machine. Potential Benefits

Electronic voting allows faster results and it is a pathway to paperless voting system. Instead of spending hundreds of papers all around the country on casting ballots, certain amount of machines at polling stations can be used by many voters with their distinct ID or smartcard. Instead of spending hours counting the ballots back in the 1770’s, with electronic voting, votes are automatically recorded and counted. It also allows voters to be anonymous. Furthermore, it is only voting system that provides the most support for the disability. "Touchscreens are the only system which allows a.

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Other articles

Should I start writing a paper early or after all research is finished? Academia Stack Exchange

To sharpen jakebeal's point a bit: my primary specific recommendation is that you not spend any significant amount of time polishing the paper until you're confident that very nearly the sum total of its contents are collected in front of you, literally or figuratively. A more-or-less-messy pile of scratch can be enough to facilitate the process of thinking through one's lines of argumentation, depending on one's personality and modes of thought, while taking a comparatively small amount of time away from continuing the necessary research/experimentation.

Just like it's often a terrible waste of time to plan most experiments or lines of research too far ahead, it's also typically a terrible waste of time to refine a manuscript too far ahead. You may find you've spent a couple dozen hours wordsmithing text that never finds its way onto an editor's desk.

answered May 15 '15 at 1:22

Though, @xLeitix, as I think about it some more, I think you might be describing a point in the process further along than what I was envisioning. Ironing out hand-wavy bits does seem more like a near-the-end-of-the-process sort of thing. The 'pile-of-scratch' approach is more for earlier in the process, when the large strokes of the effort are still being figured out. – hBy2Py May 15 '15 at 13:04

For me, writing a paper is a process that is not unlike how an author writes a book. I am constantly thinking about the "story" while I am doing the research. While working on a research project, I will suddenly think of some nice manner of presentation, phrase or even a single word that capture nicely some aspect of the work and I write these down in a raw manuscript file. Then, as the project advances to a more mature state where I know the majority of the results I will jot down a very rough outline. The actual hardcore writing then consists of putting everything together.

So in short, I suggest to start jotting ideas about writing as early as possible, but don't worry waste time on organizing or polishing these notes.

answered May 15 '15 at 1:46

It depends – on your content or type of research as well as on your approach to writing.

The two approaches to (scientific) writing I would like to distinguish are:

  1. Start with writing a quick draft and then revise and restructure it many times.
  2. Start writing with a clear structure in mind and try to optimise every sentence from the beginning.

In my experience, neither approach is generally better, but for most people, one approach is better suited than the other. If you are the person who prefers approach 1, you might start writing as soon as you finished an aspect of your paper; if you prefer approach 2, this may be a waste of time, depending on the content (see below). While there is a grey zone between the two approaches, I have not met anybody yet whose approach lies in it.

The types of content I would like to distinguish are:

  • Modular papers: There are several chunks of work that have little interdependencies to each other. If you would practice extreme salami publication, you would publish each one as a single paper, with no paper building up upon an unpublished one. So while some of these papers would cite others, there would be no loops in the citation graph.
  • Interdependent papers: There is no structure like the above. For example the results of experiment A lead to experiment B, whose results in turn inspire to repeat experiment A with other settings and so on.

Obviously, modular papers are much more suited for early writing.

To give an example from personal experience. I am the sort of person who prefers the second approch to writing and I wrote most of my papers so far after all the work was finished. Nontheless, I recently wrote a paper in a totally different style. However, this paper was a method paper, which I knew to be modular. I did things in the following order:

  1. Encounter a lack of a method during research.
  2. Have an idea for a method.
  3. Look, whether somebody had the idea already or there is a better method.
  4. Devise the core method.
  5. Find central conjecture required for core method.
  6. Prove conjecture.
  7. Write down core method and conjecture (I started this step the very next day).
  8. Perform theoretical runtime analysis of method.
  9. Write down runtime analysis.
  10. Apply method to artificial data to test its performance.
  11. Write down results.
  12. Devise artificial test case to compare method with best existing method and perform the comparison.
  13. Write down results.
  14. Apply method and existing method to real-life problem from step 1.
  15. Write down results.
  16. Write abstract, introduction and conclusion.

At no point in the process did I need to perform revisions to already written stuff other than adding a sentence for explanation or renaming a variable. While I am very happy to have done it this way and this saved me a lot of time, I also know that this approach would not have worked at all for any of my other papers.

answered May 15 '15 at 11:01

What Does Early Voting Show? Who s Winning? And Does It Boost Turnout: NPR

5 Questions About Early Voting, Answered

Voters wait in line to cast their ballots at in Dallas on Thursday.

Speaking at a rally in Tampa, Fla. on Wednesday, Hillary Clinton told the story of a leukemia patient named Steven who "ditched his oxygen tank," as Clinton told it, to vote early.

"If Steven can do that, nobody has any excuses," she chided the crowd.

The Clinton camp is putting a hard push on to turn out the vote before Nov. 8. The number of people taking advantage of early voting could hit record levels this year. Here's a primer on early voting:

1. How many people will vote early this year?

Potentially a record number. Early voting has grown quickly. In 2000, fewer than 1 in 5 voters cast their ballots early. This year, it could be nearly 4 in 10, with 37 states plus the District of Columbia allowing some form of early voting. (Some estimates say 34 percent and others go as high as 40 percent .)

That could mean some 40 million to 50 million people (or more) could vote early.

And this is visible in some of the numbers coming out already. At this point in 2012, 663,000 people had voted early across 15 Texas counties — around 7.7 percent of registered voters. This year. it's 969,000 — nearly 10 percent.

Early voting has steadily caught on, but restrictions have tightened and loosened over time, depending on the state. For example, in 2013. Colorado joined Washington and Oregon as a vote-by-mail state. And an August court decision in Wisconsin struck down laws that had restricted early voting to weekdays only and had restricted the number of early voting polling places to one per city.

Meanwhile, Arizona has passed a law saying that only direct family members and caregivers could turn in someone's ballot; giving it to anyone else is a felony. That may not seem like a big deal, but it reduces the avenues by which some people can vote, a Democratic official argued to CNN. because it stops party offices and volunteers from collecting ballots to turn them in. Nebraska and Ohio likewise cut the number of early voting days.

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2. Does it increase turnout?

Surprisingly, it's not clear that it does — in fact, some research says it might even decrease it.

Studies on this have turned out to have scattershot results. On the one hand, a 2008 paper assessed the research and found that early and absentee voting together have "a small but statistically significant impact on turnout," somewhere between 2 and 4 percent.

But then, there's evidence in the opposite direction. One recent study found that early voting may indeed slightly reduce turnout. In fact, it found that for every 10 days a state offers early voting, turnout declines by 1 percentage point. The researchers concluded that early voting may bring in some new voters, but that's counterbalanced by the fact that early voting takes attention away from Election Day itself, and all the get-out-the-vote, sometimes referred to as GOTV, efforts that go with it.

In addition, it found that wealthier and more educated people were more likely to take advantage of early voting. Same-day or Election Day registration in combination with early voting, it found, was the solution to this drop in turnout.

In a February blog post. MIT political scientist Adam Berinsky summarized other studies that likewise showed early voting does not boost turnout. The real hurdles to voting, he said, have nothing to do with physically getting to the polls.

"The more significant costs of participation are the cognitive costs of becoming involved with and informed about the political world," Berinsky wrote. He elaborated, "Political interest and engagement, after all, determine to a large extent who votes and who does not."

3. What does it say about who will win the election?

Only a little. Every day, they give a little more information, but it's still only a bare sketch of how things might ultimately turn out. After all, the results only tell what party the ballot recipients belong to, not for whom those people are voting. And there are tens of millions of independent voters who will turn in ballots.

Furthermore, only a few battleground states publish voting data by party ahead of time. And those results are mixed.

In Nevada, for example, Democrats seem to be slightly ahead of where they were in the first week of in-person early voting in 2012. Meanwhile, Republicans are roughly where they were with absentee/mail-in ballots.

Likewise, Democrats are doing better than expected in Florida, as Politico reported this week, and they have a strong lead in North Carolina .

Iowa is a mixed bag: On the one hand, Iowa's Democrats are beating Republicans so far, with around 46.5 percent of ballots to the GOP's 33 percent. That's right around where Democrats were at this point in 2012.

Then again, early voting is way down this year in Iowa overall from where it was in 2012 — and it's down more for Democrats than for Republicans. The number of Democratic ballots returned is down by 14.8 percent from this point in 2012, compared with Republicans' 8.8 percent decline.

Of course, given that a majority of votes nationwide are still cast on Election Day, any of these races could still potentially tip in the opposite direction. Democrats have a strong lead in early voting in North Carolina right now, but then, they did in 2012 early voting as well. And Republican Mitt Romney went on to win the state.

This is an important point to remember when reading early voting numbers: Even a big lead now doesn't mean a big win on Nov. 8.

4. Do different types of voting tend to lean more toward one party than the other?

Broadly speaking, mail-in voting tends to skew Republican, while in-person early voting tends to lean Democratic.

Numbers from some early voting states show this to be true. In Nevada, for example, Republicans have a roughly 1,600-vote lead in mail-in votes, while Democrats have a 28,155-vote lead in in-person voting. In Florida, mail-in voting by far beats out in-person voting — 1.6 million mailed votes have been cast to 864,000 in-person votes.

However, Republicans lead in mail-in votes, 42 to 39 percent, while Democrats lead in early votes, 43 to 39 percent (the rest are other or no-party votes).

5. How does this affect campaigning?

The more votes are cast before Nov. 8, the more work Clinton and Donald Trump will have wrapped up by Election Day. As early voting expert Paul Gronke told NPR, that changes campaign strategy.

"This is going to change the dynamics in [early voting] states so that you will expect to see early rallies timed when the early voting period opens up, likely in Florida, Ohio, North Carolina," he said. "The candidates' travel schedule will reflect this, because they want to follow up that kind of enthusiasm and get people to the polls right away."

Because Florida and Ohio have heavy early voting, Trump and Clinton will want to hit those states first.

Pennsylvania, meanwhile, requires people to have an excuse to vote absentee, meaning most people have to wait until Election Day to vote. So it makes sense that Clinton has been pushing early voting in Florida this week, while Trump and Democratic vice presidential candidate Tim Kaine are swinging through Ohio; it makes more sense to be there now.

They can hit up places like Philadelphia later.