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Early Voting Research Paper

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Electronic Voting Research Paper - 1716 Words

Electronic Voting Research Paper

Voting is the main way for citizens to translate their preferences to seats in legislature. Therefore, it is critical and extremely important for a democratic republican country like the United States to have a well organized voting system. The history of voting could be traced back to the 17th century colonial days when shouting and the show of hands would be an indication of casting votes. This method often led to chaos, fraud, repeat votes or over voting of election candidates. To reduce such loopholes, it was soon replaced by paper ballots in the 1770’s then electronic voting in the 1890’s. The change in the voting system over time emphasized certain criteria that a “good” voting system must accomplish. It must provide fast results. The anonymity of voters must be preserved in order to protect voters from malevolent candidates. Regardless of age, sex, infirmity or disability, a good voting system must be simple and usable. Electronic voting (e-voting) fulfills those requirements. Such benefits are followed by flaws and weaknesses that expose the system to threats and technical difficulties, ranging from system failure to altering results by hacking. The following background and arguing facts will expose the pros and cons of electronic voting in its developmental stage and whether it is trustworthy for measuring vote count. Background

Electronic voting system refers to the use of electronic means for casting votes and counting votes. So, what are electronic voting machines? Electronic voting technology includes punched cards, optical scan voting systems, and specialized voting kiosks, for example, direct-recording electronic voting systems, or DRE. The transmission of ballots and votes can be done via telephones, private computer networks, or the Internet. People have many accesses to e-voting. In general, there are two main ways. They could use the voting machines at the polling stations or they could vote through remote e-voting whether voting is performed within the voter’s sole influence through mobile devices or the internet (Wikipedia). Polling stations tend to be physically supervised by representatives of government or private constitutional authority, unlike remote e-voting which people can vote in their own private and comfortable space. Direct-recording electronic systems (DRE) completely eliminate paper ballots from the voting process (Kohno, Stubblefield, Rubin, Wallach; 2004). Generally, voters come to polling stations with an ID to prove that they are eligible for voting. They are then provided with a pin number or a smartcard that could be entered to a touch-screen voting machine in order to proceed voting for the candidate of their choice. The summary of each candidate would be shown, such as their background, their policies and their stand on certain political issue. Voter can change their mind in the process of selecting candidates until they submit their final choice. The votes are instantly recorded and counted in the system that will save more time than the original paper ballots casting. Before Election Day, election officials use EMS (election management system) to set up the election (Weldemariam, Kemmerer, Villafiorita; 2011). Ballots definition files are loaded into DRE machines, CF cards are installed and printers are assigned for each DRE machine. Potential Benefits

Electronic voting allows faster results and it is a pathway to paperless voting system. Instead of spending hundreds of papers all around the country on casting ballots, certain amount of machines at polling stations can be used by many voters with their distinct ID or smartcard. Instead of spending hours counting the ballots back in the 1770’s, with electronic voting, votes are automatically recorded and counted. It also allows voters to be anonymous. Furthermore, it is only voting system that provides the most support for the disability. "Touchscreens are the only system which allows a.

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of electronicvoting Admin Why do we want to introduce e-voting in next general elections in Bangladesh? Will this ensure free and fair election under the current political environment in our country? The answer undoubtedly will be in the negative, writes Shama Obaed Recently, there has been a debate going on regarding electronicvoting . after the Election Commission mentioned a possible plan to introduce electronicvoting system in the next general elections. Our prime minister and other ministers of the present government sided with EC’s decision and have spoken in favour of electronicvoting . The main opposition party BNP has opposed the idea of e-voting . Although, in the process and ‘excitement’ of building ‘Digital Bangladesh’, it might seem a befitting idea to establish electronicvoting system in our country, but I truly think, all the responsible persons of the government and at the EC should seriously analyse the severe disadvantages of e-voting . even before thinking about it as an option for our voting system. They should also seriously investigate why one of the largest democracies, like India and the US, have strongly given valid arguments against electronicvoting . What is actually electronicvoting .

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opened new gateway in doing things particularly voting process in the organization. Every Organization performs elections but majority still used the conventional process which is manual procedure. Nowadays, technology arises to solve a problem with technical solution. All of the transactions and processes are done in computerized way due to the new technological processes that was use. People utilized standardized transactions because of its fast, handy way process, hassle-free and easy. Today, manual process was still used but as of modernization for voting procedures is deal with. In promoting hassle-free and automated voting procedure a system must be projected. The increase demands of the users and because of improvement the process of voting should automated. To realize the objectives of organization in terms of organized voting . the Direct Recording ElectronicVoting System was proposed. In this kind of manual voting process the constrain, were the counting of votes and after elections, the declaration of votes takes a long period of time, because numerous votes are in-line for counting process. Another constrain also, the voters doesn’t fill up ballots completely, this scenario will lead to vote counting inaccuracy thus manual process of voting is not efficient procedure; it really needs to be developed into an computerized process. The.

1243 Words | 4 Pages

Electronicvoting systems Can they hack it, or can they be hacked? The incredible advances of technology and computing in our society over the last few decades has touched every aspect of our lives, from schools to businesses, from controlling traffic lights on the streets to keeping our airplanes from going bump in the night. Technology has managed to make the little tasks of life easier, while making the big picture so much more complex than ever before. We have sought to develop technology to improve and replace just about everything - email has taken over for the post office, blogs and webisodes are replacing television, and even books are more widely sold in electronic form. Is it any real surprise that those engineers and programmers are working to replace the old paper ballots and punchcards of voting as well? Electronicvoting systems are quite varied in style, construction, and capabilites. One of the more prevalent systems in use today is called Direct Recording Electronic . DRE is an adaptation of the mechanical lever machines, and utilize a touch screen or pushbuttons for user interaction. An alphanumeric keypad is often available as well, allowing for write-in votes. In 1996, 7.7% of the registered voters in the United States used some type of direct recording electronicvoting system. (Bellis) Other forms of.

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ELECTRONICVOTING MACHINE 1. What is an ElectronicVoting Machine? It is a simple electronic device used to record votes in place of ballot papers and boxes which were used earlier in conventional voting system. 2. What are the advantages of EVM over the traditional ballot paper /ballot box system? (i) It eliminates the possibility of invalid and doubtful votes which, in many cases, are the root causes of controversies and election petitions. (ii) It makes the process of counting of votes much faster than the conventional system. (iii) It reduces to a great extent the quantity of paper used thus saving a large number of trees making the process eco-friendly. (iv) It reduces cost of printing almost nil as only one sheet of ballot paper required for each Polling Station. 3. Apart from India which are the other countries that use EVMs in elections? Bhutan used the Indian EVMs for the whole country during their last elections. These machines were also used by Nepal for some of their constituencies during the last general elections in the country. 4. When was the EVM introduced in India? It was first used in 1982 in the bye-election to Parur Assembly Constituency of Kerala for a limited number of polling stations (50 polling stations). 5. What are the unique features of Indian EVMs? It is a simple.

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disadvantages, and impact of electronicvoting systems There are advantages, some disadvantages and the world will be forever impacted by electronicvoting systems. I will tell you about the many advantages that electronicvoting systems offer as our world is forever evolving into new and improved technology. With new technology though we must always be aware of system problems and glitches in new technology. We must ensure the new technology is tested and as accurate as we need it to be. Proponents will argue that electronicvoting machines are more secure and able to capture the intent of voters. They are capable of preventing residual votes, reliable, easy to use and calculate and report voting results faster. They are accessible to disabled, illeriterate, and non-English speaking voters. (http://votingmachines.procon.org) First let’s talk about reliability because this is what really matters the most, we want and need to have accurate results. Diebold ElectionSystems,a manufacturer of electronicvoting machines, stated in a Jan.23,2006 press release titled” California Tests Find Diebold Touch-Screen Voting 100 Percent Accurate During November 2005 Election” (http://votingmachines.procon.org//view.answers.php?questionID=000278). The performance of Diebold’s touch screen.

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subjects however, is the one concerning this new centuries way of casting an individual's vote, through electronicvoting . Electronicvoting is a way to cast a person's ballot using an electronicvoting machine that is touch screen. There are many advantages to using these machines during an election but there are also many disadvantages to using them as well. Before a person can make their own judgments on this subject it is important to understand and view both sides of the argument. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been put forth to upgrade voting systems all around the country, and most of the money going to going to paperless e-voting systems. A study by Election Data Services indicates that 50 million voters, or about 28 percent of the voting population, used such electronicvoting systems in 2004. This is about twice as many more than voted electronically in the previous election (Boyle). These numbers are important to understand the experience that this new way of voting has been used. Not even half of the voters have used the machine so before our country changes the system of voting they need to know how this small percentages voting is affected and how accurate and safe it truly is. Many people, who support the newest electronic .

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5815/ijcnis.2012.07.07 Application of Biometrics in Mobile Voting Donovan Gentles1, Suresh Sankaranarayanan 2, 3 1Mona Institute of Applied Sciences, University of WestIndies, Jamaica dongen02@gmail.com 2Computing & Information Systems, Institut Teknologi Brunei, Brunei 3Department of Computing, University of WestIndies, Jamaica pessuresh@hotmail.com Abstract — Voting process in today’s era is behind its time in respect of the usage of modern ICT. The voting process is being seen mostly as a manual and paper based one. This process can be overwhelming, time-consuming and prone to security breaches and electoral fraud. Over the years technology related systems were being developed to resolve some of the issues like electoral fraud, impersonation, double voting etc. One such system is Electronic based voting that has been actively used for voting in countries like India. However, these systems seem to be prone to electoral frauds and voters have to make tremendous effort to cast their ballots. There are still a few very important areas which have to be identified and addressed viz. the Security which involves a person be able to vote in a secure manner, the time spent for voting by voters, the efficiency in counting of votes and the cost involved in employing people towards monitoring the voting process. So taking.

7263 Words | 25 Pages

Should electronicvoting systems be used in political elections? MSc Software Development • 28 January 2013 INTRODUCTION As a modern nation under a democratically elected government, providing a reliable, userfriendly balloting system for the electorate is an important requirement. Given the ubiquity of information technology and its utilisation into a constantly expanding array of industries and services, governments around the world have been debating, trialling and even implementing the use of ElectronicVoting (e-voting ) methods. With this debate comes a range of concerns relating to security, reliability, accessibility and trust over such systems. Advocates of these technologies argue that such issues as voter turnout and election costs may be improved while sceptics point out evidence which disproves such claims and raises further issues and complications not found with traditional paper methods. In this essay I will discuss some examples of different e-voting technologies and some of the problems surrounding them. I will then discuss some other more general issues relating to the topic and try and draw conclusions from existing research into the field. Though the topic is large, in order to narrow the debate for the purpose of this essay, I will attempt to relate examples to the UK and USA where possible. TYPES OF ELECTRONIC .

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Other articles

Should I start writing a paper early or after all research is finished? Academia Stack Exchange

To sharpen jakebeal's point a bit: my primary specific recommendation is that you not spend any significant amount of time polishing the paper until you're confident that very nearly the sum total of its contents are collected in front of you, literally or figuratively. A more-or-less-messy pile of scratch can be enough to facilitate the process of thinking through one's lines of argumentation, depending on one's personality and modes of thought, while taking a comparatively small amount of time away from continuing the necessary research/experimentation.

Just like it's often a terrible waste of time to plan most experiments or lines of research too far ahead, it's also typically a terrible waste of time to refine a manuscript too far ahead. You may find you've spent a couple dozen hours wordsmithing text that never finds its way onto an editor's desk.

answered May 15 '15 at 1:22

Though, @xLeitix, as I think about it some more, I think you might be describing a point in the process further along than what I was envisioning. Ironing out hand-wavy bits does seem more like a near-the-end-of-the-process sort of thing. The 'pile-of-scratch' approach is more for earlier in the process, when the large strokes of the effort are still being figured out. – hBy2Py May 15 '15 at 13:04

For me, writing a paper is a process that is not unlike how an author writes a book. I am constantly thinking about the "story" while I am doing the research. While working on a research project, I will suddenly think of some nice manner of presentation, phrase or even a single word that capture nicely some aspect of the work and I write these down in a raw manuscript file. Then, as the project advances to a more mature state where I know the majority of the results I will jot down a very rough outline. The actual hardcore writing then consists of putting everything together.

So in short, I suggest to start jotting ideas about writing as early as possible, but don't worry waste time on organizing or polishing these notes.

answered May 15 '15 at 1:46

It depends – on your content or type of research as well as on your approach to writing.

The two approaches to (scientific) writing I would like to distinguish are:

  1. Start with writing a quick draft and then revise and restructure it many times.
  2. Start writing with a clear structure in mind and try to optimise every sentence from the beginning.

In my experience, neither approach is generally better, but for most people, one approach is better suited than the other. If you are the person who prefers approach 1, you might start writing as soon as you finished an aspect of your paper; if you prefer approach 2, this may be a waste of time, depending on the content (see below). While there is a grey zone between the two approaches, I have not met anybody yet whose approach lies in it.

The types of content I would like to distinguish are:

  • Modular papers: There are several chunks of work that have little interdependencies to each other. If you would practice extreme salami publication, you would publish each one as a single paper, with no paper building up upon an unpublished one. So while some of these papers would cite others, there would be no loops in the citation graph.
  • Interdependent papers: There is no structure like the above. For example the results of experiment A lead to experiment B, whose results in turn inspire to repeat experiment A with other settings and so on.

Obviously, modular papers are much more suited for early writing.

To give an example from personal experience. I am the sort of person who prefers the second approch to writing and I wrote most of my papers so far after all the work was finished. Nontheless, I recently wrote a paper in a totally different style. However, this paper was a method paper, which I knew to be modular. I did things in the following order:

  1. Encounter a lack of a method during research.
  2. Have an idea for a method.
  3. Look, whether somebody had the idea already or there is a better method.
  4. Devise the core method.
  5. Find central conjecture required for core method.
  6. Prove conjecture.
  7. Write down core method and conjecture (I started this step the very next day).
  8. Perform theoretical runtime analysis of method.
  9. Write down runtime analysis.
  10. Apply method to artificial data to test its performance.
  11. Write down results.
  12. Devise artificial test case to compare method with best existing method and perform the comparison.
  13. Write down results.
  14. Apply method and existing method to real-life problem from step 1.
  15. Write down results.
  16. Write abstract, introduction and conclusion.

At no point in the process did I need to perform revisions to already written stuff other than adding a sentence for explanation or renaming a variable. While I am very happy to have done it this way and this saved me a lot of time, I also know that this approach would not have worked at all for any of my other papers.

answered May 15 '15 at 11:01

What Does Early Voting Show? Who s Winning? And Does It Boost Turnout: NPR

5 Questions About Early Voting, Answered

Voters wait in line to cast their ballots at in Dallas on Thursday.

Speaking at a rally in Tampa, Fla. on Wednesday, Hillary Clinton told the story of a leukemia patient named Steven who "ditched his oxygen tank," as Clinton told it, to vote early.

"If Steven can do that, nobody has any excuses," she chided the crowd.

The Clinton camp is putting a hard push on to turn out the vote before Nov. 8. The number of people taking advantage of early voting could hit record levels this year. Here's a primer on early voting:

1. How many people will vote early this year?

Potentially a record number. Early voting has grown quickly. In 2000, fewer than 1 in 5 voters cast their ballots early. This year, it could be nearly 4 in 10, with 37 states plus the District of Columbia allowing some form of early voting. (Some estimates say 34 percent and others go as high as 40 percent .)

That could mean some 40 million to 50 million people (or more) could vote early.

And this is visible in some of the numbers coming out already. At this point in 2012, 663,000 people had voted early across 15 Texas counties — around 7.7 percent of registered voters. This year. it's 969,000 — nearly 10 percent.

Early voting has steadily caught on, but restrictions have tightened and loosened over time, depending on the state. For example, in 2013. Colorado joined Washington and Oregon as a vote-by-mail state. And an August court decision in Wisconsin struck down laws that had restricted early voting to weekdays only and had restricted the number of early voting polling places to one per city.

Meanwhile, Arizona has passed a law saying that only direct family members and caregivers could turn in someone's ballot; giving it to anyone else is a felony. That may not seem like a big deal, but it reduces the avenues by which some people can vote, a Democratic official argued to CNN. because it stops party offices and volunteers from collecting ballots to turn them in. Nebraska and Ohio likewise cut the number of early voting days.

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2. Does it increase turnout?

Surprisingly, it's not clear that it does — in fact, some research says it might even decrease it.

Studies on this have turned out to have scattershot results. On the one hand, a 2008 paper assessed the research and found that early and absentee voting together have "a small but statistically significant impact on turnout," somewhere between 2 and 4 percent.

But then, there's evidence in the opposite direction. One recent study found that early voting may indeed slightly reduce turnout. In fact, it found that for every 10 days a state offers early voting, turnout declines by 1 percentage point. The researchers concluded that early voting may bring in some new voters, but that's counterbalanced by the fact that early voting takes attention away from Election Day itself, and all the get-out-the-vote, sometimes referred to as GOTV, efforts that go with it.

In addition, it found that wealthier and more educated people were more likely to take advantage of early voting. Same-day or Election Day registration in combination with early voting, it found, was the solution to this drop in turnout.

In a February blog post. MIT political scientist Adam Berinsky summarized other studies that likewise showed early voting does not boost turnout. The real hurdles to voting, he said, have nothing to do with physically getting to the polls.

"The more significant costs of participation are the cognitive costs of becoming involved with and informed about the political world," Berinsky wrote. He elaborated, "Political interest and engagement, after all, determine to a large extent who votes and who does not."

3. What does it say about who will win the election?

Only a little. Every day, they give a little more information, but it's still only a bare sketch of how things might ultimately turn out. After all, the results only tell what party the ballot recipients belong to, not for whom those people are voting. And there are tens of millions of independent voters who will turn in ballots.

Furthermore, only a few battleground states publish voting data by party ahead of time. And those results are mixed.

In Nevada, for example, Democrats seem to be slightly ahead of where they were in the first week of in-person early voting in 2012. Meanwhile, Republicans are roughly where they were with absentee/mail-in ballots.

Likewise, Democrats are doing better than expected in Florida, as Politico reported this week, and they have a strong lead in North Carolina .

Iowa is a mixed bag: On the one hand, Iowa's Democrats are beating Republicans so far, with around 46.5 percent of ballots to the GOP's 33 percent. That's right around where Democrats were at this point in 2012.

Then again, early voting is way down this year in Iowa overall from where it was in 2012 — and it's down more for Democrats than for Republicans. The number of Democratic ballots returned is down by 14.8 percent from this point in 2012, compared with Republicans' 8.8 percent decline.

Of course, given that a majority of votes nationwide are still cast on Election Day, any of these races could still potentially tip in the opposite direction. Democrats have a strong lead in early voting in North Carolina right now, but then, they did in 2012 early voting as well. And Republican Mitt Romney went on to win the state.

This is an important point to remember when reading early voting numbers: Even a big lead now doesn't mean a big win on Nov. 8.

4. Do different types of voting tend to lean more toward one party than the other?

Broadly speaking, mail-in voting tends to skew Republican, while in-person early voting tends to lean Democratic.

Numbers from some early voting states show this to be true. In Nevada, for example, Republicans have a roughly 1,600-vote lead in mail-in votes, while Democrats have a 28,155-vote lead in in-person voting. In Florida, mail-in voting by far beats out in-person voting — 1.6 million mailed votes have been cast to 864,000 in-person votes.

However, Republicans lead in mail-in votes, 42 to 39 percent, while Democrats lead in early votes, 43 to 39 percent (the rest are other or no-party votes).

5. How does this affect campaigning?

The more votes are cast before Nov. 8, the more work Clinton and Donald Trump will have wrapped up by Election Day. As early voting expert Paul Gronke told NPR, that changes campaign strategy.

"This is going to change the dynamics in [early voting] states so that you will expect to see early rallies timed when the early voting period opens up, likely in Florida, Ohio, North Carolina," he said. "The candidates' travel schedule will reflect this, because they want to follow up that kind of enthusiasm and get people to the polls right away."

Because Florida and Ohio have heavy early voting, Trump and Clinton will want to hit those states first.

Pennsylvania, meanwhile, requires people to have an excuse to vote absentee, meaning most people have to wait until Election Day to vote. So it makes sense that Clinton has been pushing early voting in Florida this week, while Trump and Democratic vice presidential candidate Tim Kaine are swinging through Ohio; it makes more sense to be there now.

They can hit up places like Philadelphia later.