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Ecn 211 Filer Homework 411

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Ecn 211 filer homework 411

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The Shared Unique Number (SUN) System helps students identify courses that will directly transfer among Arizona's community colleges and three public universities. Using the SUN System, students can easily search for and enroll in courses that offer direct equivalency at other Arizona colleges and universities. SUN courses have their own unique course number and prefix listed alongside each college's course number.

Visit The SUN System for more information.

Hybrid classes blend regularly scheduled classroom meetings with required online learning activities, reducing the amount of in-person class time while covering course content.

All meetings for in-person classes are completed in a face-to-face format at the designated class location(s).

Online classes are conducted via the Internet through a learning management system, and use new and emerging technologies.

Independent Study classes do not require classroom meetings. Students will self-reliantly learn using materials and communications with an instructor.

Fast-Track to Completion classes are short-term classes (less than 16 weeks) that are designed to allow for flexible scheduling and accelerated completion toward earning a degree or certificate.

Honors classes are designed to enhance the intellectual experience of students. Students who have met the Honors Program requirements are eligible to enroll in honors classes and require written approval from the Honors Program Office.

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If my home - s air filters are clean when I change them, are they really working?

If my home's air filters are clean when I change them, are they really working?

The blue filter on the right is clean and new. If your air system is working properly, then your filter will look like the dirty, used one on the left.

To change the temperature in your home, your heating and air-conditioning system sucks in air from a room, pulls it over coils to heat or chill it, then blows the tempered air through ducts to the other rooms in your home. The air filter is stationed at the point where air is pulled into the system. It traps air-born particles that get sucked in with the air and keeps them from blocking the blower and clogging up the coils. Clogged coils can't heat or cool the air passing over them, and they may damage the system. So, the air filter helps your heating and cooling system do its job, keeps it running efficiently and protects it so it will last longer.

Filters also help to keep dust from building up in your ducts, or being blown into other rooms of your house. In recent years, this air cleaning function has become more important to homeowners, and manufacturers have designed filters that use your heating and air system to remove microscopic particles like dust, pollen, pet dander, bacteria, plant and mold spores, and even smoke from the air in your home.

Heating & Cooling

It's an often heard maxim: Clean air filters save energy and money. Routinely changing or cleaning the filters from your home's heating and air conditioning system helps the units run more efficiently and enjoy a longer lifespan. But what do these filters really do? How can you tell if they're working? How often should you change them, and what should you do if they look clean when it's time to replace them?

In the following pages, we'll look at the function, types, rating system and routine maintenance of air filters for your home's heating and air-conditioning system. We'll also look at problems that prevent the filters from working properly.

Filtering DSCP

Filtering DSCP

The second byte in the IPv4 header (aka “those bits you’ve probably never, ever looked at”) is used for Differentiated Services, or DiffServ. It’s split into two parts: the 6 most significant bits define the DSCP (differentiated services code point) and the two least significant bits are for ECN (explicit congestion notification). You can use DSCP to divide your traffic into different classes. For example, Asterisk might use the following DiffServ value, which corresponds EF (Expedited Forwarding) :

If your networking equipment is sufficiently aware, this traffic will receive preferential treatment.

You can filter these values pretty easily using the ip.dsfield.dscp display filter � just right-click on the DSCP field in the packet like so:

Applying a DSCP display filter

What if you need to use DSCP in a capture filter?

To match against a particular DSCP codepoint using BPF (WinPcap/libpcap’s filtering language) you need to take the bit pattern, left-shift it two places to account for the ECN, and mask out the ECN. For EF (101110) you’d have do something like this:

  1. Take 101110 and shift it left two bits: 10111000
  2. Convert it to hex: 0xb8
  3. Create a filter, masking out the ECN bits:

P.S. To make matters more confusing, the DiffServ field was originally called “Type of Service.”

Post navigation

Traffic shaping - Gentoo Wiki

Traffic shaping

The iproute2 package installs the powerful tool called "tc". It is used to control and modify queuing and filters on network links.

Lets begin with a little example:

root # tc qdisc show dev eth0

By default, the pfifo_fast queuing discipline is used by the Linux kernel. It should not be listed by "tc qdisc show".

There are two modes of traffic shaping, INGRESS and EGRESS. INGRESS handles incoming traffic and EGRESS outgoing traffic. Linux does not support shaping/queuing on INGRESS, but only policing. Therefore IFB exists, which we can attach to the INGRESS queue while we can add any normal queuing like FQ_CODEL as EGRESS queue on the IFB device.

The main reason for traffic shaping is that we cannot control the packet queues or prioritisation made by our ISP or in the external link. By limit our maximum bandwidth to 90% of our link speed we can make sure that any buffers (queues) that our ISP and our external link has will remain empty.

FQ_CODEL is a queuing discipline that is based on AQM (Active Queue Management). It aims to create fair bandwidth for all flows, while attempting to minimise buffers (and hence delays).

The INGRESS shaping below works like this:

  1. Create ingress filter on external interface
  2. Copy all incoming data to the IFB device
  3. Create an EGRESS qdisc on the IFB device and limit the bandwidth to 90%
  4. Attach the FQ_CODEL queuing discipline.

The original version of this page was wildly incorrect, in particular the ingress portion of the shaper didn't work at all. The protocol filter was ip only (no arp, no ipv6), the ifb0 device was not up, the default htb destination was to the direct, not fq_codel qdisc. Also the htb "quantum" is different and has a different purpose than the the fq_codel quantum - the htb quantum is there to lighten the cpu load of htb under higher rates, the fq_codel quantum is there to optimize for different packet sizes.

It was good to know everything that can go wrong on a fq_codel rate shaper. -- dtaht

I generally recomend treating the ecn idea gently on anything but strictly controlled networks (like data centers)

Traffic Shaping Script

It is important that you start by setting your upload and download speeds to about 90% of your maximum link speed. After you get satisfying results, you can generally try increasing your upload speed to 95% or higher, and twiddle with download speed. On some links you can get away with 95% too, on some, 85% is safer. ADSL has special framing problems which require usage of the htb STAB parameter (not shown here).

You also need to load all modules beforehand.

root # modprobe ifb

root # modprobe sch_fq_codel

WooCommerce Products Filter - WordPress Plugins

WooCommerce Products Filter - WOOF - is a plugin that allows you to filter products by products categories, products attributes, products tags, products custom taxonomies and price. Supports latest version of the WooCommerce plugin. A must have plugin for your WooCommerce powered online store! Maximum flexibility!

If you are WP+PHP developer and you want to create something unusual in the seacrh form interface – Welcome: using WOOF extension API and default extensions as an examples you can create any html-items for the search form and even custom woo-products loop template for your own purposes. Also its possible to create any connectors for layout plugins: http://www.woocommerce-filter.com/extensions/

The Plugin Features:
  • Shortcode&Widget -> [woof]
  • Products shortcode [woof_products per_page=8 columns=3 is_ajax=1 taxonomies=product_cat:9]
  • Uses native woocommerce API only
  • Products searching by AJAX
  • Statistic for the search requests by taxonomies
  • Dynamic products recount
  • You can show your taxonomies as: radio, checkbox, drop-down, multi-drop-down, radio buttons in drop-down. Color,label,hierarchy drop-down, checkbox buttons in drop-down - in the premium version
  • Different skins for radio and checkboxes in the plugin settings
  • Simple options
  • Compatible with WooCommerce Currency Switcher - https://wordpress.org/plugins/woocommerce-currency-switcher/
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  • Compatible with WooCommerce Products Per Page - https://wordpress.org/plugins/woocommerce-products-per-page/
  • WPML compatibility
  • Possibility to create any extensions for the plugin (for developers only)
  • Demo site is: http://demo.woocommerce-filter.com
  • Documentation: http://www.woocommerce-filter.com/documentation/ and http://www.woocommerce-filter.com/codex/
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