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Single-Row Functions

Single-Row Functions

Single-row functions return a single result row for every row of a queried table or view. These functions can appear in select lists, WHERE clauses, START WITH and CONNECT BY clauses, and HAVING clauses.

Numeric Functions

Numeric functions accept numeric input and return numeric values. Most numeric functions return NUMBER values that are accurate to 38 decimal digits. The transcendental functions COS. COSH. EXP. LN. LOG. SIN. SINH. SQRT. TAN. and TANH are accurate to 36 decimal digits. The transcendental functions ACOS. ASIN. ATAN. and ATAN2 are accurate to 30 decimal digits. The numeric functions are:

Character Functions Returning Character Values

Character functions that return character values return values of the following data types unless otherwise documented:

If the input argument is CHAR or VARCHAR2. then the value returned is VARCHAR2 .

If the input argument is NCHAR or NVARCHAR2. then the value returned is NVARCHAR2 .

The length of the value returned by the function is limited by the maximum length of the data type returned.

For functions that return CHAR or VARCHAR2. if the length of the return value exceeds the limit, then Oracle Database truncates it and returns the result without an error message.

For functions that return CLOB values, if the length of the return values exceeds the limit, then Oracle raises an error and returns no data.

The character functions that return character values are:

Character Functions Returning Number Values

Character functions that return number values can take as their argument any character data type. The character functions that return number values are:

Character Set Functions

The character set functions return information about the character set. The character set functions are:

Datetime Functions

Datetime functions operate on date ( DATE ), timestamp ( TIMESTAMP. TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE. and TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE ), and interval ( INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND. INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH ) values.

Some of the datetime functions were designed for the Oracle DATE data type ( ADD_MONTHS. CURRENT_DATE. LAST_DAY. NEW_TIME. and NEXT_DAY ). If you provide a timestamp value as their argument, then Oracle Database internally converts the input type to a DATE value and returns a DATE value. The exceptions are the MONTHS_BETWEEN function, which returns a number, and the ROUND and TRUNC functions, which do not accept timestamp or interval values at all.

The remaining datetime functions were designed to accept any of the three types of data (date, timestamp, and interval) and to return a value of one of these types.

All of the datetime functions that return current system datetime information, such as SYSDATE. SYSTIMESTAMP. CURRENT_TIMESTAMP. and so forth, are evaluated once for each SQL statement, regardless how many times they are referenced in that statement.

The datetime functions are:

General Comparison Functions

The general comparison functions determine the greatest and or least value from a set of values. The general comparison functions are:

Conversion Functions

Conversion functions convert a value from one data type to another. Generally, the form of the function names follows the convention datatype TO datatype. The first data type is the input data type. The second data type is the output data type. The SQL conversion functions are:

Large Object Functions

The large object functions operate on LOBs. The large object functions are:

Collection Functions

The collection functions operate on nested tables and varrays. The SQL collection functions are:

Hierarchical Functions

Hierarchical functions applies hierarchical path information to a result set. The hierarchical function is:

Data Mining Functions

The data mining functions use Oracle Data Mining to score data. The functions can apply a mining model schema object to the data, or they can dynamically mine the data by executing an analytic clause.

The data mining functions are:

XML Functions

The XML functions operate on or return XML documents or fragments. These functions use arguments that are not defined as part of the ANSI/ISO/IEC SQL Standard but are defined as part of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards. The processing and operations that the functions perform are defined by the relevant W3C standards. The table below provides a link to the appropriate section of the W3C standard for the rules and guidelines that apply to each of these XML-related arguments. A SQL statement that uses one of these XML functions, where any of the arguments does not conform to the relevant W3C syntax, will result in an error. Of special note is the fact that not every character that is allowed in the value of a database column is considered legal in XML.

W3C Standard URL

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Single Economic Entity Concept

Single Economic Entity Concept | Consolidation Accounting

Consolidated financial statements of a group of companies are prepared on the basis of single economic entity concept .


Single Economic Entity Concept suggests that companies associated with each other through the virtue of common control operate as a single economic unit and therefore the consolidated financial statements of a group of companies should reflect the essence of such arrangement.


Consolidated financial statements of a group of companies must be prepared as if the entire group constitutes a single entity in order to avoid the misrepresentation of the scale of group's activities.

It is therefore necessary to eliminate the effects of any inter-company transactions and balances during the consolidation of group accounts such as the following:

  • Inter-company sales and purchases
  • Inter-company payables and receivables
  • Inter-company payments such as dividends, royalties & head office charges

Inter-company transactions must be eliminated as if the transactions had not occurred in the first place. Examples of adjustments that may be required to eliminate the effects of inter-company transactions include:

  • Elimination of unrealized profit or loss on the sale of assets member companies of a group
  • Elimination of excess or deficit depreciation expense in respect of a fixed asset purchased from a member company at a price that was higher or lower than the net book value of the asset in the books of the seller.

XYZ PLC is a company specializing in the manufacturing of fertilizers. At the start of the current accounting period, XYZ PLC acquired DEF PLC, a chemicals producer.

Following is a summary of the financial results of the two companies during the year:

Since XYZ Group, considered as a single entity, cannot sell and purchase to itself, the sales and purchases in the consolidated income statement have been reduced by $20 m each in order to present the sales and purchases with external customers and suppliers.

If we ignore the single entity concept, XYZ Group's financial results will present sales of $170 m and cost of sales amounting $80 m. Although the net profit of the group will be unaffected by the inter-company transaction, the size of the Group's operations will be misrepresented due to the overstatement.

Following diagram summarizes the implications of the single entity principle on group financial reporting.

Test Your Understanding

ABC Motors PLC is a leading cars manufacturer with presence in several countries through its network of subsidiaries and associates.
ABC Motors PLC is in the process of preparation of its consolidated financial statements.
Which of the following transactions and events should be reflected in ABC Motors Group's consolidated financial statements?

Management consultancy charges received by ABC Motors PLC from its subsidiaries

ABC Motors Group cannot present income and expense in respect of the consultancy fee charged to a member of the Group in the consolidated accounts.
ABC Motors PLC may however report income in respect of the consultancy fee in its separate financial statements.

Payment of dividend by ABC Motors PLC to its shareholders

Shareholders of ABC Motors PLC should be considered as separate from the Group and hence transactions with shareholders (e.g. dividends) must be reported in the consolidated financial statements.

Purchase of equipment from a subsidiary at fair value

Transactions of a parent with subsidiary, irrespective of whether they are executed on an arm's length basis or not, should not be reflected in the consolidated financial statements.
Consequently, the effects of the purchase transaction must be eliminated from the group accounts as if the transaction did not take place.

Related party disclosure of the inter-company transactions between ABC Motors PLC and its subsidiaries

For the purpose of consolidated financial statements of the Group, related party transactions should only be disclosed in respect of entities outside the Group.
Inter-company transactions between member companies of a group may however be disclosed in their separate financial statements.

Epistrophe: Definition and Examples

Epistrophe I. What is Epistrophe?

Epistrophe (pronounced ih- pis -tr uh -fee) is when a certain phrase or word is repeated at the end of successive sentences or clauses. This repetition creates a rhythm while emphasizing the repeated phrase. Epistrophe is also known as epiphora and antistrophe.

II. Examples of Epistrophe

Last week, he was just fine. Yesterday, he was just fine. And today, he was just fine .

Repetition of “he was just fine” serves to emphasize that the state of this person has not changed over time.

I’m tired of this job. I’m over this job. I’m done with this job !

Repetition of “this job” emphasizes that the job is the cause of the speaker’s frustration.

The award for best hair went to Josh. The award for most likely to succeed went to Josh. And the award for most charming? It went to Josh !

The repeated phrase “went to Josh” emphasizes Josh’s ability to win numerous awards.

III. The Importance of Using Epistrophe

Epistrophe is important in both everyday conversation and more formal speeches. Epistrophe is a simple but effective way of emphasizing a certain idea and is used often by speechmakers for this reason. It emphasizes certain ideas, arousing emotion in listeners and readers more than a simple sentence would otherwise. Because epistrophe also adds rhythm to a passage, it creates a more enjoyable and memorable phrase.

IV. Examples of Epistrophe in Speeches

Here are a few examples of epistrophe from famous speeches:

Should I be elected President, it would be my intention to ask the ablest men in the country to make whatever sacrifice is required to bring to the Government a ministry of the best talents available, men with a single-minded loyalty to the national interest, men who would regard public office as a public trust. For no government is better than the men who compose it, and I want the best. and we need the best. and we deserve the best .

In JFK’s speech, emphasis on “the best” serves to align Kennedy with the search for the best and the insistence upon having the best.

For a second example, consider the words of Barack Obama:

For when we have faced down impossible odds, when we’ve been told we’re not ready or that we shouldn’t try or that we can’t, generations of Americans have responded with a simple creed that sums up the spirit of a people: Yes, we can. Yes, we can. Yes, we can .

It was a creed written into the founding documents that declared the destiny of a nation: Yes, we can.

It was whispered by slaves and abolitionists as they blazed a trail towards freedom through the darkest of nights: Yes, we can.

It was sung by immigrants as they struck out from distant shores and pioneers who pushed westward against an unforgiving wilderness: Yes, we can.

It was the call of workers who organized, women who reached for the ballot, a president who chose the moon as our new frontier, and a king who took us to the mountaintop and pointed the way to the promised land: Yes, we can. to justice and equality.

Yes, we can, to opportunity and prosperity. Yes, we can heal this nation. Yes, we can repair this world. Yes, we can.

Perhaps the most modern practitioner of the epistrophe, President Barack Obama insisted on positivity and forward-thinking with what became a motto for his campaign and presidency.

V. Examples of Epistrophe in Pop Culture

Repetition creates rhythm and memorability. It reflects strong emotions ranging from anger to bliss.

Where there is love, I’ll be there

I’ll reach out my hand to you, I’ll have faith in all you do

Just call my name and I’ll be there

Jackson 5 promises “I’ll be there” in a soothing and kind refrain.

VI. Related Terms

Like epistrophe, anaphora involves the repetition of a select word or phrase in order to draw attention to it. Unlike epistrophe, anaphora is placed at the beginning of successive phrases. Here are a few examples of anaphora versus epistrophe:

First, imagine a friend is struggling with math.

Math is so frustrating, challenging, and boring!

In order to emphasize these qualities belong to math, repeat “math is”:

Math is so frustrating! Math is challenging! And math is boring!

To emphasize the same idea, repeat “math” as the answer to successive questions.

What’s frustrating? Math. What’s challenging? Math! And what’s boring? Math!

A struggle with math is emphasized by repetition in both anaphora and epistrophe.

Symploce is the marriage of anaphora and epistrophe: a word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of successive phrases while a different word or phrase is repeated in similar forms at the end of each phrase. Here are a few examples of symploce:

  • I’m upset because I’m exhausted. I’m upset because I’m tired of putting up with it.
  • When you see someone being bullied, stand up for them. When you see someone bullying, stand up against them.
  • If you need help, reach out. If you need a listener, speak out. If you need direction, look out.
VII. In Closing

Epistrophe proves that repetition works well to send a strong message. Whether used by frustrated friends or powerful politicians, repetition of key phrases at the end of successive sentences provides readers and listeners with a compelling and memorable experience.

What does single mean?

Definitions for single ˈsɪŋ gəl

single, bingle (noun)

a base hit on which the batter stops safely at first base

one, 1, I, ace, single, unity (adj)

the smallest whole number or a numeral representing this number

"he has the one but will need a two and three to go with it"; "they had lunch at one"

individual, single (adj)

being or characteristic of a single thing or person

"individual drops of rain"; "please mark the individual pages"; "they went their individual ways"

used of flowers having usually only one row or whorl of petals

"single chrysanthemums resemble daisies and may have more than one row of petals"

existing alone or consisting of one entity or part or aspect or individual

"upon the hill stood a single tower"; "had but a single thought which was to escape"; "a single survivor"; "a single serving"; "a single lens"; "a single thickness"

unmarried, single (adj)

not married or related to the unmarried state

"unmarried men and women"; "unmarried life"; "sex and the single girl"; "single parenthood"; "are you married or single?"

individual, single(a) (adj)

characteristic of or meant for a single person or thing

"an individual serving"; "single occupancy"; "a single bed"

having uniform application

"a single legal code for all"

single(a), undivided, exclusive (verb)

not divided among or brought to bear on more than one object or objective

"judging a contest with a single eye"; "a single devotion to duty"; "undivided affection"; "gained their exclusive attention"

"the batter singled to left field"

Wiktionary (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition:

A 45 RPM vinyl record with one song on side A and one on side B.

A popular song released and sold (on any format) nominally on its own though usually has at least one extra track.

The Offspring released four singles from their most recent album.

One who is not married.

He went to the party, hoping to meet some friendly singles there.

A score of one run.

A hit in baseball where the batter advances to first base.

A tile that has different values (i.e. number of pips) in each end.

A one-way ticket.

A score of one point, awarded when a kicked ball is dead within the non-kicking team's end zone or has exited that end zone. Officially known in the rules as a rouge.

To identify or select one member of a group from the others; generally used with out, either to single out or to single (something) out.

To get a hit that advances the batter exactly one base.

Pedro singled in the bottom of the eighth inning, which, if converted to a run, would put the team back into contention.

Not accompanied by anything else.

Can you give me a single reason not to leave right now?

Not divided in parts.

The potatoes left the spoon and landed in a single big lump on the plate.

Designed for the use of only one.

Not married nor dating

Josh put down that he was a single male on the dating website.

Having only one rank or row of petals.

Simple and honest; sincere, without deceit.

Origin: sengle, from sengle, from singulus a diminutive from the root in simplex. See simple, and confer singular.

Webster Dictionary (4.00 / 1 vote) Rate this definition:

one only, as distinguished from more than one; consisting of one alone; individual; separate; as, a single star

alone; having no companion

hence, unmarried; as, a single man or woman

not doubled, twisted together, or combined with others; as, a single thread; a single strand of a rope

performed by one person, or one on each side; as, a single combat

uncompounded; pure; unmixed

not deceitful or artful; honest; sincere

simple; not wise; weak; silly

to select, as an individual person or thing, from among a number; to choose out from others; to separate

to sequester; to withdraw; to retire

to take alone, or one by one

to take the irrregular gait called single-foot;- said of a horse. See Single-foot

a unit; one; as, to score a single

the reeled filaments of silk, twisted without doubling to give them firmness

a handful of gleaned grain

a game with but one player on each side; -- usually in the plural

a hit by a batter which enables him to reach first base only

Origin: [L. singulus, a dim. from the root in simplex simple; cf. OE. & OF. sengle, fr. L. singulus. See Simple, and cf. Singular.]

Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition:

In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, the single is a song that is released separately from an album, but it usually appears on an album. Often, these are the most popular songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as commercial radio airplay, and in other cases a recording released as a single does not appear on an album.

Chambers 20th Century Dictionary (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition:

sing′gl, adj. consisting of one only: individual, unique: separate, private: alone: unmarried: not combined with others: unmixed: having one only on each side: straightforward: sincere: simple, normal: pure.—v.t. to separate: to choose one from others: to select from a number.—adjs.Sing′le-act′ing. acting effectively in one direction only—of any reciprocating machine or implement; Sing′le-breast′ed. with a single row of buttons or loops only, of a coat, corsage, &c.—n.Single-en′try. a system of book-keeping in which each entry appears only once on one side or other of an account.—adj.Sing′le-eyed. having but one eye: devoted, unselfish.—ns.Sing′le-flow′er. a flower containing a single set of petals, as a wild rose; Sing′le-foot. a gait of horses, the amble.—adjs.Sing′le-hand′ed. by one's self: unassisted: having only one workman; Sing′le-heart′ed. having a single or sincere heart: without duplicity.—adv.Sing′le-heart′edly .—adj.Sing′le-mind′ed. having a single or sincere mind: upright.—ns.Sing′le-mind′edness ; Sing′leness. state of being single or alone: freedom from deceit: sincerity: simplicity.—adj.Sing′le-soled. having a single sole, as a shoe: poor.—ns.Sing′le-stick. a stick or cudgel for one hand: a fight or game with singlesticks; Sing′let. an undershirt or waistcoat; Sing′leton. in whist, a hand containing one card only of some suit; Sing′letree (the same as Swingletree ); Sing′le-wom′an. an unmarried woman: (obs. ) a whore.—adv.Sing′ly. one by one: particularly: alone: by one's self: honestly: sincerely. [O. Fr.,—L. sin-gulus. one to each, separate, akin to sem-el. once, Gr. ham-a .]

British National Corpus

Spoken Corpus Frequency

Rank popularity for the word 'single' in Spoken Corpus Frequency: #534

Written Corpus Frequency

Rank popularity for the word 'single' in Written Corpus Frequency: #860

Rank popularity for the word 'single' in Nouns Frequency: #2366

Translations for single Translation Word of the Day Citation Definitions & Translations

Can Power Be Limited to a Single Definition?

Can Power Be Limited to a Single Definition?

Autor: asdfman • December 5, 2012 • Essay • 569 Words (3 Pages) • 487 Views

Can Power be Limited to a Single Definition?

Power is such a complex and ambiguous word. The word can describe energy, ability, control, and influence. It is used in many contexts and sometimes, can come in unexpected forms. Power is always some type of strength or force, but it is not always what we may expect it to be.

Power is the ability to influence others. For example in a debate, one would describe the more influential team as the more "powerful" team. This context of power also exists in history, one example being the case of Adolf Hitler. With his powerful or influential speeches and propaganda, Hitler was able to brainwash, influence and control the entire nation. He was so powerful to an extent that people followed his demonic deeds without question. History repeated itself in China, where Mao Ze Dong started a "cultural revolution" which involved the death of millions. Here again, Mao was so powerful, or influential, that the people canonized him, even up till today.

Power is also the ability to perform actions. Many normal actions in daily life, as simple as eating a sandwich, or lifting up the textbook from the floor, require power. This power can be measured. For example, the power required to lift up a textbook can be calculated physically. However, the impact of some actions cannot be physically measured. For example, a breathtaking performance by a violin virtuoso, Vanessa Mae called Classical Gas, can impact any individual, its magnitude being unfathomable.

Power is energy. The food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe provides energy to enable us to perform daily functions. The glucose from food and the oxygen from the air chemically react to produce ATP, a type of energy which our bodies depend on. Humans need energy to power up our cooking stoves or light up our houses. As a result, humans have grown to rely on fossil fuel, nuclear power and hydroelectric