Category: Research Paper
Viral marketing is a form of word-of-mouth marketing that aims to result in a message spreading exponentially and campaigns work when a message is spread exponentially and it results in a desired outcome for a brand (Stokes, R. 2010). It uses the internet to expose and spread the product or service. It harnesses the electronic connectivity of individuals to ensure marketing messages are referred from one person to another (Stokes, R. 2010). There are two types of viral marketing. Organic viral campaigns spread with no input from the company who wants to advertise. The message or product/ service being sold by the merchant are passed around in a viral nature without any intention from the marketer (Stokes, R. 2010). In organic viral marketing, no planning was done on how to spread it and those who spread the product or service made a choice just to pass it around. Amplified viral marketing on the other hand have been strategically planned, have defined goals for the brand being marketed, and usually have a distinct method of passing on the message (that can be tracked and quantified by the marketer) (Stokes. R.,2010). To go viral, a sellers or service provider has to define the aims of the campaign. Sellers or service provider’s has to decide if the company wants brand awareness. drive traffic or make sure customers avail of the product or service properly. Secondly, the company should plan the message it wants to go viral. The message has to be unique and be easily noticeable to consumers. Third, the message you want to convey should be easily passed on. Lastly, the company has to provide incentive for sharing. The greatest incentive for users sharing your content is social currency: something that users will.
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Viral Marketing: Word-to-Mouth-Marketing Essay - Viral Marketing Viral marketing is a form of word-of-mouth marketing that aims to result in a message spreading exponentially and campaigns work when a message is spread exponentially and it results in a desired outcome for a brand (Stokes, R. 2010). Viral marketing uses the internet to disclose and spread the company’s products or services. It harnesses the electronic connectivity of individuals to ensure marketing messages are referred from one person to another (Stokes, R. 2010). There are two types of viral marketing. [tags: campaign, message, social media]
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Essay Social Network - Marketing based on social networks refers to a collection of marketing activities that take advantage of social relationships between consumers to increase sales. There are different kinds of marketing using social networks like word-of-mouth marketing, diffusion of innovation, buzz marketing and viral marketing . Between these instances of network-based marketing, Word-of-mouth marketing has more creditability , because there is no direct link between the sender and the merchant. As a result, information is considered independent and subjective. [tags: Business, Marketing]
consideration for word of mouth marketing. 3.1 Research design: Impact of word of mouth on purchasing behavior of. term paper. REFERENCES [1. Word of Mouth Marketing. Need for Uniqueness on Word of Mouth,” Journal of Marketing Research, 47. Strategically Positive Word of Mouth,” working paper. Free Whitepapers & Research; Career Center; Wommapedia; Subscribe; ABOUT WOMMA. About WOMMA;. Founded in 2004, the Word of Mouth Marketing Association (WOMMA). The Effect of Word of Mouth on Sales: Online Book Reviews. and Negativity Bias in the Impact of Online Word of Mouth. Journal of Marketing Research 50:4, 463. Word of Mouth Marketing Twitter and Brands with Word of Mouth Marketing Word of mouth marketing is rapidly becoming part of marketing’s plan when it comes to brand. About this research Microsoft Advertising partnered with the Keller Fay Group to better understand how audiences vary in. for successful word-of-mouth marketing. Snakes and ladders marketing - ESOMAR Research Paper - Purchase Intent, Word of Mouth References. (1978) word of mouth marketing research paper. Not only do you have to be a good writer, but you must also be able to conduct a fundamental. In marketing, word-of-mouth communication. According to Deloitte, further research has shown that ‘most advocacy takes place offline’. . Word of Mouth Marketing.Psst! How to Use Word of Mouth Marketing As almost every businessperson knows, the best lead or.
There's a lot of interest in word of mouth these days, and for good reason: it's a powerful purchase influencer across product categories. But here's the fundamental question: what makes people talk? Having a great product is obviously important. (As Guy Kawasaki recently quipped in Advertising Age, "It is very hard to evangelize crap.") But probably the most important factor in getting people to talk is, simply, to give them something to talk about.
Experiential marketing gives people a lot to talk about. Imagine being engaged in a live, one-on-one marketing experience with a product or brand you can touch or talk about with other customers or a brand ambassador. The experience likely involves entertainment, links to online "next steps" and a lifestyle tie-in like sports, culture or music. Add that up and it makes for a memorable interaction--a rich experience to share with others through word of mouth.
No one questions that word of mouth is a desirable effect.
What I'd argue is that experiential marketing can be among its most potent causes.
The basis of experiential marketing is a live marketing experience that occurs in person, face-to-face. You don't have to interrupt consumers or push something at them--and that cuts through the clutter and distraction that marketers are so conscious of today. And face-to-face--the most old fashioned marketing medium around--is also the medium in which word of mouth in its most prevalent form occurs. A soon-to-be-published article by Walter Carl of Northeastern University notes that an overwhelming majority (80%) of word of mouth activity (both among incentivized "agents" and unpaid "non-agents") occurs in face-to-face or interpersonal settings. Cognitive psychologists have long noted that the face-to-face interaction, because it engages multiple senses, dramatically increases people's ability to absorb, remember and apply learning--meaning that there's a longer window of recall.Citation styles:
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On the contrary. Word of Mouth may not prove useful in marketing of services like banking. education law and health care where words do not suffice
Be Aware of Where WOM is Coming From. It is generally a misconception that consumers make their own opinion. Media plays an important part in shaping their opinion in addition to their personal experiences Consequently. look not only at what your influencers are saying. but at what other media they are consuming that is helping shape their word of mouth
Analyze and Look for the
Real Meaning. Often. the people scrutinizing the word of mouth look strictly at the transcript of what is said Instead. the meaning behind the words should be evaluated. as well as the words themselves
When we consider the examples of successful implementation of WOM marketing in today 's scenario. Gmail stands out in front. Google did no marketing or spent any money for promotion of Gmail. They created scarcity by giving out Gmail accounts only to a handful of "power users " The word about the new mail service with only limited users spread through out the world just in couple of months. People started making all out efforts to get into the line of the so called power users ' Demand was created by limited supply. The status of having a Gmail account caused the word of mouth. rather than any marketing activities by Google
The essence of WOM Marketing rests in spreading the information employing the human resource. Besides the utilization of information technology. the very best way to get the word out is to tell people. If each employee of an organization tells 10 people of the incredible services his /her company is providing. and those 10 people tell another 10 people. the information will become a buzz.
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It all started in mid 1980s when an MLM company of Australian origin promoted its dairy product alternatives through Word of Mouth Marketing. It was targeted to patients suffering from cardiac issues, asthma & dairy allergies. Owing to the nature of the topic, promotion & trial naturally resulted.
It gives reason to people to talk about and makes it easier to converse with each other. It's a Consumer to Consumer Marketing; a consumer provides information to another consumer about different things be it product, its features, service or any other related thing. It is marketing when it's out of the mouth of a marketer & when a real person repeats it, its WOM.Word of mouth marketing
WOM marketing includes buzz, viral, blog, social media marketing and is given high priority by the product marketers of this era. Credibility is an added advantage to this type as there is personal level of communications involved among the individuals. Research has proved that as compared to formal modes of promotion, WOM has more inclination as receivers of this type of communication tend to believe that the provider has no wrong intention and does not have incentive to provide wrong information and is honest in his/her approach.
One of the most important techniques employed in WOMM is to target influencers in the society who command authority and have high number of personal connections. Most important of all, all these should be done in a proper ethical manner.
With the surfacing of Web 2.0, many web start-ups like MySpace, Facebook, YouTube, etc. have used buzz marketing with the help of social networks they have developed. WOM has reached to a different level with Internet playing an important role in day to day lives of consumers.Organizations | Word of Mouth Marketing Association (WOMMA)
An organization with more than 380 corporate members; is the official trade association for WOMM. Best practices are shared along with ways to measure ROI. It provides latest knowledge, research & training through webinars to its members.| Society for Word of Mouth (SWOM)
This is a social network and an educational resource for those organizations who want to inculcate WOm into their DNA. Across the globe, over 1,800 members share ideas and challenges among themselves. Online and offline events are used to educate the people about WOMM.Word of Mouth | Rules Three Reasons | People Talk About Product Word of Mouth Marketing | Five Ts Factors Influencing effectiveness of WOM
WOM is a method of personal influence wherein the communications between a sender and a receiver can change the behavior of receiver. This ability of individuals to impact other people's opinions is of interest to companies which seek to market products and services. This technique is more useful to those types of offerings which are difficult to try before purchase. WOM has more of importance in last phase of purchase process as it helps consumers in reducing post-purchase uncertainty.
Positive WOM reduces risk during evaluation stage of the purchase cycle of the consumer. Owing to the inherent perceived risk in many purchase situations, consumers are likely to undertake pre-purchase trials. In services, non availability of pre-purchase trial along with their heterogeneity, intangibility, inseparability & perish ability, leads to high-risk perceptions. Thus WOM has importance in service contexts. It is important for the firms to understand that only creation of positive WOM is not sufficient, the recipient needs to take action on that. A proper understanding of factors influencing word of mouth effectiveness would help firms to harness this tool of promotion in a better manner. WOM provides pleasant experiences when it's of positive flavor and a complaining one when it's in negative. For professional and financial services having high credence qualities, WOM is of high importance.
Acceptance of WOM is driven by the expertise of the giver and the perceived interest of giver in the receiver. The ability of WOM appears to be influenced by the tie strength or the intensity of the social relationship between consumers. The impact of a customer passing WOM to another one is known as a "ripple effect". The factors enhancing the impact of WOM on a receiver are - Personal factors, Message characteristics, Interpersonal factors & Situational characteristics.Personal Factors
There are three issues to be dealt with.
The perceived credibility & associated expertise of the sender resulting in the risk associated in taking the advice. These factors include the sender's credibility, reliability & trustworthiness as a source of information and as a result, the value placed on his/her opinion.
This is in concern to the reassurance which might be required by the receiver lacks experience with the product or service being considered.
Last experience which the consumer had with a particular product or service.Interpersonal Factors
The characteristics of both the parties and personal relationship between them influences WOM acceptance. The key element here is closeness of a sender and a receiver and the rapport of each other. To add, degree of similarity of the giver & receiver or the perceptual homophily impact on WOM effectiveness.Situational Factors
WOM is least effective for complex services which involve higher risk & is most effective when received from multiple sources. It is also of high importance when receiver lacks the knowledge needed to make the decision. Also, interest in the subject matter helps in influencing attitude through WOM and also when there is a dearth of alternatives, it plays an important role.Characteristics of the WOM
The mode of message delivery and its nature impact effectiveness of WOM. The richness of the message and the way it is portrayed as in through story telling impacts on WOM receptiveness. Non-verbal communication like body language also plays a significant role in the acceptance of WOM.Relevance of WOM in key Sectors
Experience goods like entertainment products (e.g. live concerts, rock shows, movies, sporting events) & services like vacation packages, restaurant meals, hair styling, etc. are the best place where WOM can be best used. As there are only limited cues which are not tangible enough, it is difficult for consumers to evaluate the quality of these goods before purchase. Therefore, they are likely to rely on informational inputs, such as WOM, in their choice decisions. Post Consumption, they engage in WOM based on their satisfaction level and thus impact choices of future potential consumers.Literature Review 1. Social Ties and Word-of-Mouth Referral Behavior
Author(s): Jacqueline Johnson Brown and Peter H. Reingen
Source: The Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Dec. 1987), pp. 350-362
Published by: The University of Chicago Press
Social ties play a very important role in word of mouth behavior. The study on word of mouth referral behavior showcases the constraint of consumer's social relations with others. The study takes into account the relational analysis of word of mouth behavior precipitating out of interpersonal networks. The relational analysis highlighted features of tie strength and homophily to examine referral behavior at both micro and macro levels of inquiry. Tie strength is characterized by several variables such as importance attached to the social relation, frequency of social contact, and type of social relation. It also highlights the different roles played by weak and strong ties. Information is allowed to travel from one distinct subgroup of referral actors to another subgroup in the broader social context in the sphere of weak ties at the macro level. Weak ties allow the system the system to spread information in the social system. On the other hand strong and homophilous ties are more likely to be activated for the flow of referral information including tie activation, information seeking, perceived influence, emergence of subgroups, and overlap in personal sources of information. Strong ties are likely to be utilized as sources of information for related goods, and is perceived to have stronger influence than weak ties. The views of strong ties are repeated in the same subgroups and have a major impact on decision-making. This also highlights the preferences of goods in same subgroups are very coherent and differ widely in different subgroups.2. Effects of Word of Mouth Advertising on Consumer Risk Taking
Author(s): Arch G. Woodside and M. Wayne DeLozier
Source: Journal of Advertising, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Autumn, 1976), pp. 12-19
Published by: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Word of mouth advertising can play critical roles in shaping customer's willingness to make product choices, which are perceived as risky. The paper presents a model aimed at the influence of word of mouth advertising on consumer behavior and the implications for advertisers. The consumer and social psychology literature throws light on individuals changing their willingness to choose risky alternatives from informal group discussions. Woodside (1968) suggests a self-fulfilling prophecy theory for risk-shifting phenomena in consumer behavior: consumers initiate informal group discussions to reduce uncertainty on high-risk product purchase. The consumers who perceive high risk in the purchase build prior to purchase defense of the risky choice, as they are more involved in the product discussions. The group discussion can shape consumer behavior on the reasons suggested by other group members to not choose the risky product, which produces a shift toward conservative alternatives, i.e. non-purchase or purchase of other brands. The theory predicts that disclosure of risk levels in the presence of others increases risk perceptions among individuals.3. Introduction Strategy for New Products with Positive and Negative Word-of-Mouth
Author(s): Vijay Mahajan, Eitan Muller, Roger A. Kerin
Source: Management Science, Vol. 30, No. 12 (Dec. 1984), pp. 1389-1404
Published by: INFORMS
The innovation diffusion models highlight/assume that individual experiences with the product are communicated positively through word-of-mouth. Though this assumption does not hold true for all cases as communicators of the product experience may transfer favorable, unfavorable, or indifferent messages through word-of-mouth. The paper discusses a diffusion model in which negative information plays a dominant role, which has wider implications for optimal advertising timing policy. An application was presented and optimal advertising timing policies for the introduction of a new product in the presence of negative word-of-mouth were delineated. Future extensions of the proposed model to include other marketing variables, market interventions, and competition will further contribute to the convergence between the diffusion and adoption models and thus enhance the practical and diagnostic power of the diffusion models. The impact of product promotion and advertising efforts is multiplied through word of mouth effects on the basis of positive recommendations provided by current adopters to potential adopters. Robertson (1971) emphasizes the importance of word of mouth effect in the development of marketing strategies. Word of mouth effects have increasingly served as the primary underlying behavior rationale in the development of innovation diffusion models of new product acceptance (Mahajan and Muller 1979).4. The Digitization of Word of Mouth: Promise and Challenges of Online Feedback Mechanisms
Author(s): Chrysanthos Dellarocas
Source: Management Science, Vol. 49, No. 10, Special Issue on E-Business and Management
Science (Oct. 2003), pp. 1407-1424
Published by: INFORMS
Communication has taken new shapes with Internet coming to the picture. The inherent capabilities of the Internet to provide bidirectional communication have opened new avenues for promotional strategies. At forefront of the new communication paradigm we have online feedback mechanism, which is engineering large scale, word of mouth networks. Organizations are using the digital revolution with the coming up of Internet to reach huge audiences at much lower costs. Individuals have also been able to indulge in exchange of personal thoughts, reactions and opinions of users on a global platform.
These tools are immensely useful for organizations to build trust and encourage communication in online marketplaces. They have now much wider impact in the form of implications on a wide range of management activities; brand building, customer relationship, product development and quality assurance. The paper essentially focuses on understanding the new possibilities and challenges that these mechanisms represent. It very well emphasis the key dimensions in which Internet-based feedback mechanisms differ from traditional word-of mouth networks and discusses the most important issues related to their design, evaluation, and use. The paper also presents implications on other diverse fields with an overview of relevant work in game theory and economics on the topic of reputation. The theory predicts that a minimum degree of participation in word-of-mouth communities is required before reputation effects can induce any cooperation. Once the threshold is reached reputation effects take precedence and high levels of cooperation emerge in a discontinuous fashion. Thus Internet based feedback mechanisms have become very effective in comparison to the traditional word of mouth networks. Traditional word of mouth networks emerged naturally and evolved in ways, which were difficult to control or model. The Internet has allowed this powerful social force to be precisely measured and controlled through proper engineering of the information systems that mediate online feedback communities. The paper discusses aspects of reputation in fields like online bidding wherein the promise of future gains of reputation effects have been successful to provide a honest and high quality delivery from sellers to buyers. The paper has also highlighted that the work can be extended to other fields like computer science, management science, operations research, sociology, and psychology to account for the online environments.5. Using Online Conversations to Study Word-of-Mouth Communication
Author(s): David Godes and Dina Mayzlin
Source: Marketing Science, Vol. 23, No. 4 (Fall, 2004), pp. 545-560
Published by: INFORMS
The paper discusses two main themes. First it emphasizes the importance of word of mouth communication, and second it tries to find out the relative importance of online versus offline word of mouth. Word of mouth communication has emerged very strongly and managers feel that the success of a product is related to the positive word of mouth it generates. Now along with the immense advantages presented by word of mouth, it also associated challenges. Some of the key challenges are problems in data collection; also since the information is exchanges in private conservations it is difficult to measure any aspect of these conservations. More so word of mouth is not exogenous which presents new challenges, as firms want to map word of mouth to future sales, but rather word of mouth is an outcome of past sales. It is highlighted that word of mouth is an outcome of past behavior, which throws important implications for the measurement of word of mouth. For example, high word of mouth today does not necessarily translate to higher sales tomorrow. It may just mean that the firm had high sales yesterday. The difficult part in measuring word of mouth is the fact that it is a precursor as well as an outcome of consumer actions. The paper also discusses two different aspects of volume and dispersion. It was found that online conversations may offer an easy and cost-effective opportunity to measure word of mouth. It was also showed that a measure of the dispersion of conversations across communities has explanatory power in a dynamic model of TV ratings. Online communities were also analyzed to recover the underlying sales occurring offline. This suggested that people do make offline decisions bases on online information, and more so that online conversations act as proxy for offline conservations. It is also not surprising that the impact of word of mouth has become more than even before which implies that the manager has the option of creating online WOM, e.g. through newsgroups or Web sites, or both online and offline WOM.6. Word of Mouth Communication and Community Reinforcement
Author(s): ILLTAE AHN AND MATTI SUOMINEN
Source: International Economic Review, Vol. 42, No. 2 (May, 2001), 399-415
Community enforcement has been able to make sellers behave cooperatively even when they meet particular buyers only infrequently. They have a short-term incentive to cheat and provide low quality products, but this has been thwarted by community enforcement. The research highlights the effects of community enforcement by modeling a situation where information among players is transmitted informally and imperfectly through word of mouth communication. Sellers' incentive to produce high quality is observed when the seller has no long-term relationships with buyers and buyers learn from word of mouth communication. The paper draws parallel with the concepts of game theory. It studies a repeated game where a seller who has a short-term incentive to cheat is matched with randomly select buyers. Buyers also take into account the outcomes of their neighbors' games and receive signals from them. Now once the buyer population is lager for instance in case of specialist doctors, car dealers, they sellers will sell high quality even if there is a miniscule probability of buyers observing cheating. But when there is a low likelihood of networking among buyers, sellers have incentives to cheat and provide low quality products. Thus community enforcement plays a vital role and a coordinated buycott after observing low quality by the buyers can force the sellers to provide high quality products.7. Word-of-Mouth Communication and Social Learning
Author(s): GLENN ELLISON AND DREW FUDENBERG
Source: The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 110, No. 1 (Feb. 1995), 93-125
The paper highlights the effects of social learning and word of mouth communication on consumer behavior. Most of the time people make decisions with knowing the costs and benefits of the possible choices. Now since such situations arise with a greater frequency it is often seen that they rely on whatever information they have obtained primarily through word of mouth communication. Reliance on such information is seen most often in consumers choosing restaurants, auto mechanics to even business managers evaluating alternative organizational structures. The paper discusses the aggregation of information of individual agents, which lead to word of mouth communication. They key social learning of the tendency of a population display conformity or diversity, with less communication making conformity more likely. Now even if the consumers are naÃ¯ve, the social learning coming from word of mouth communication make them adopt the action which is on average superior. The surprising element to come out of the research is that these social efficient outcomes tend to occur primarily when each individual receives very little information.8. Word-of-mouth Communication by the Innovator
Author(s): JAMES F. ENGEL ROBERT J. KEGERREIS and ROGER D. BLACKWELL
Source: The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 3(Jul. 1969), 15-19
Product involvement motivates the new user to talk about his purchase and the pleasure & excitement resulting from it. Self involvement of the innovator can play an important role as he can share his satisfactions as a result of product usage. The innovator can also help in post purchase dissonance and help relatives and friends
This article studies the behavior of users of new automotive diagnostic centre in Ohio after they tried the product. Innovators are supposedly more active in disseminating the information about the new product. It was proved by fact that almost 90% of first time users of a new automotive diagnostic centre told at least one person about it. A group of dissatisfied users utilized the word-of-mouth channel to overcome anxiety. The most beneficial WOM is generated when the expectations about the product or service are met. Other findings demonstrated that innovators knew enough to communicate right information about the service. They proved to be thoughtful buyers.
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