Abortion, The Big Us Problem Essay, Research Paper
Of the numerous American Problems in today+s society, abortion is, without a doubt, one of the most culturally significant and opinion-forming. It is a topic that has the American public divided by values and ethics. Some believe it is immoral and murderous to abort a potential human being; others that it a necessity in today+s world and that it is the choice of the carrying woman and her close ones. We are against abortion in most cases, because of the fact that there are so many other solutions and alternatives that could not only save a life, but could make moral and ethical logic. Also, it involves the killing of a developed human child that could potentially make culturally significant contributions to the world. Of course, it is an issue that forms emotional opinions, and many would disagree with our view. However, when the topic is viewed as a whole, we feel that there are better ways to solve this American Problem.
The alternatives to abortion are so abundant that it makes having one performed appear illogical. Much can be done to solve the problem in ways that are in the interests of all parties. For instance, adoption is almost always an option in these cases. If the woman were to have the child and give it to an adoption agency, rather than have it aborted, it would allow the child to enjoy a full life with all benefits, instead of no life at all. Adoption agencies would not only choose and build a good life for the child, but they would allow the mother to approve before-hand. |The typical adopted teenager is growing up healthy in a strong adoptive family, according to a new Search Institute study entitled Growing Up AdoptedX (Abortion Alternatives.com). There are, of course, other examples of solutions that can help the problem be solved. For one, abortion is especially a moral outrage because of the fact that a developed human child is being terminated; a potential life is being torn away prematurely. If an unplanned sexual encounter occurs without protection having been used, the morning after pill is a solution. That way, there are no human beings being killed, just a fertilized egg being discontinued. Of course, it is always best to plan ahead at all stages and be cautious. If one is going to have sex, protection of all kinds should always be used where necessary and appropriate. Of course, all who are below an age not yet mature enough to successfully handle the responsibility of sex and potential consequences should choose abstinence at all times. The best protection against unplanned pregnancy, and for that matter, sexually transmitted disease, is to not have sex at all. When responsibility for one+s actions are aptly accepted, abortion should not even have to be a serious option.
If the mother does not feel right about giving her child away, there is always the possibility of single parenting, or raising the child with their partner. Of course, the mother and father would have to be exceptionally strong and lucky to pull it off. Problems like money trouble and extreme stress are hard to overcome without help from outsiders. It is, of course, important to make it clear that it is not the end of their worlds. |Most people agree that abortion should be a rare procedure. To accomplish that ideal, our society must proactively, by providing resources and support, offer pregnant women the hope that carrying their babies to term is not the end of their plans and dreamsX (Abortion Perspectives homepage). However, when the parent(s) do not want to give it away and feel an obligation to it, although she knows she herself (nor with her partner) can supply the life the child deserves, receiving help from family and friends is always an option. Giving the grandparents custody would also be possible, and would give both the child and the parents some much needed assistance.
Adoption is such a major problem because of the morals and ethics involved within. After viewing an aborted child, it is extremely hard not to view abortion as murder, even slaughter. It takes a toll upon one+s conscience when it is realized that human children can legally be terminated like that, especially with all the alternatives and solutions given above.
Of course, there are always opposing opinions. Many potential mothers believe that abortion is the only way out of their problems, and that is because many are not shown all of their options. Many people who support abortion feel that it is the mother+s choice alone, and that is a valid opinion if, of course, they know all of their choices. But chances are, most mothers that consider abortion feel trapped in their situation, and do not see any other ways out of their problems. Of course, abortion is not always the wrong decision. In cases such as rape and incest, it would be wrong to bring a child conceived under such circumstances into the world. Another exception is when the mother+s health would be in jeopardy if she were to go on with the pregnancy and have the baby. It would not be better to save the life of someone already experienced in the glory of existence and lose one who has never seen the light of day, rather than bring a baby into the world that has lost a mother before they are even fully conscious. These are all exceptions to the mainstream issues, however. In the majority of the time, these are not instances involved in the everyday abortions.
Even though we do not feel that abortion is the answer, we strongly feel that showing one+s discontent through violence is wrong and just adds to the problem. Taking away numerous lives in order to try to protect others does not seem like a rational choice. One such example of protesting gone too far is the stream of clinic bombings. This is impossibly wrong, because the people whose clinics are being bombed will never take the time to listen to what the bombers have to say because they will be too busy trying to rebuild what they destroyed. According to People Weekly magazine, in 1984, |24 abortion-related facilities were bombed or torched nationwideX (January 19, 1999). These numbers have continuously gone up as time has passed on. Another example is the growing trend of abortion doctors being killed in their homes, many times while with their families. One example is Dr. Barnett Slepian, who performed abortions. |Dr. Slepian, father of four….was shot and killed by a sniper while standing with his wife and son in his kitchenX (Nation, |Murder Inc.). The article also states that Dr. Slepian was |the seventh medical practitioner to be killed since 1992.X That statistic shows how ridiculous the situation has become. Although the people using violence feel that it is their best option, we believe that much more could be accomplished if people were to sit down, talk and discuss over what they obviously feel so strongly about. Minds at work better benefit all when focused on peace and understanding.
Abortion is one of the biggest of American Problems today. People kill and die over an issue that arouses extremely strong and emotional opinions. The future does not look very bright for this topic, because so many act irresponsibly and without precaution that negative consequences are inevitable. The problem can only be solved if and when people choose to act rationally and try to solve their differences peacefully. With this in mind, abortion is undoubtedly an important and significant American Problem.
THE MANY SIDES OF ABORTION
The medical definition of abortion is, " the termination of a pregnancy by loss or
destruction of the fetus before birth. It can be either spontaneous or induced, and the
latter is an act with many legal and ethical ramifications." Abortion is a very controversial
subject and there are many different positions that one could take, none which are either
all right or all wrong. Before any one makes a decision as to how they feel on the subject,
one should look at the different sides to the issue.
When talking about abortion, there are many different ethical questions involved.
Ethics is what one uses to distinguish what is right from wrong, good from bad, etc. Since
people come from different backgrounds, they have a different code of ethics, therefore
answering the question of right and wrong can not be easily answered, and who knows if
it can ever be answered? There is no correct ethical or moral code for one specific time
period, or group of people, so one must decide what they believe on the issue of abortion,
by examining there own code of ethics.
I attended Catholic Schools for most of my life, and had Catholic beliefs and ideas
rammed down my throat for so long, that for a while I decided what ever The Church
believes, I am going to believe the exact opposite. So for many years I believed in
abortion, and thought of it as no big deal, and th.
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Abortion As A Problem Essay, Research Paper
Abortion as a Problem
The issues of abortion always perplexed me in many ways. There were many questions to be answered and to be discovered based on the arguments why people consider it as an option. In issues regarding abortion there are many opinions that I had to observe based on the fact that many individuals had different views and perspectives. Above all the confrontation I encountered regarding abortion, there was only one question that always left me bewildered. I always wondered why women actually go through abortion. Abortion it ?self is a painful experience that leaves many women wondering why they actually went thru the experience. They have no Idea of what that child could be. Most people say that women have emotional and physical side effects after having an abortion. Abortion cannot only be dangerous to the fetus but also to the host as well. Some women even have rash ideas and some have thoughts of suicide. What is their purpose in committing what I believe to be such a crime? I?ve read opinions regarding why women are considering abortion as an option. Some women complain about not being able to feed another mouth. Other women claim that when another child is conceived that life, as you know it, will get a lot harder. In my standards abortion should only be considered when a convicted killer or rapists rapes someone. Or another option can be considered if the host has aids or very ghastly sickness or disease. I remember on a show were one mother was raped and because she didn?t believe in abortion, she still had her child and because she didn?t have her child at her own will she disowned him. Even though if a woman went through rape she should find ways to avoid getting an abortion. She could probably get advice from a friend or counseling from a doctor about the factors of giving birth to an unwanted child. I know a child should never
grow up without a father figure, but that shouldn?t be a good reason why someone should choose to go through abortion because of the fact that the child would grow up without a child. In most societies today abortion is considered to be intolerable in most cultures and different societies. People in those societies see birth as a great thing that should not be taken away from a human being without any purpose. The fact of destroying a living organism such as the developing embryo to discontinue life was looked upon as being homicide by many different societies. I read that a social consensus exists that when human personhood starts, that the person must be protected. Some people say that many religions, organizations and individuals have passionately held but conflicting beliefs about when this happens. This naturally leads to opposing views on whether a woman should have access to abortion. A lot of people that approve of abortion believe that the fetus becomes a human person only after it has been delivered and is breathing on its own. There is some Biblical justification for this belief. In an article on a website I came across described how Genesis 2:7 states that God made Adam’s body from the dust of the ground. But it was only after God “breathed into it the breath of life” that “man became a living person.” They may be reluctant to consider a fetus that is about to be delivered as human, because that might result in a “slippery slope” argument that would criminalize abortions at gradually earlier gestational ages. Other Physicians say that in the process of 3 months developing in the beginning state of the embryo, they state that the embryo is not a living human or an organism. Although I?ve read that abortion percentiles declined in the passed years since 1979, still in other countries such as the Soviet Union and
Romania abortion rates are very high and unstable, the Soviet Union and Romania current abortion rates apparently leads most nations in abortion today. The reason was
probably because of the poverty factor in Europe, usually many people do not have enough resources to support a family nor do they think they are capable of starting one yet. I personally believe abortion should have never been introduced into our rural society mainly because of the fact that now these days pregnant women who want abortion to prevent future pregnancy are taking it for granted. Although at some times many physicians say abortion is needed I completely disagree. My religion and self-beliefs are strictly against abortion and its practices. There are some religions that actually support abortion, but most of the churches have restrictions on when should abortion should actually be pursued. As there are scripts in my holy bible that explain how human personhood begins at the instant conception of an egg being present. I would also really hope that people realized what they were doing and find other alternatives instead of resulting to abortion.
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Adolescent Abortion Essay, Research Paper
Less then twenty-five years ago, any women who elected to terminate her pregnancy usually had to resort to illegal, unsanitary, and unsafe means. Abortion was frequently considered a criminal offense committed by the woman and the physician performing the procedure. The Supreme Court cases leading to the legalization of abortion began in 1963 with Griswold v. Connecticut. The court invalidated a Connecticut statute that made possession and use of contraceptives by married couples a criminal offense. The case of Griswold was later expanded to encompass the woman?s right not only to prevent but also to terminate her pregnancy. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the court held that state regulation of woman?s access to abortion at all times during her pregnancy is impermissible. In finding unconstitutional a Texas statute that did not allow abortion unless it was performed to save the mother?s life, the Court eliminated most restrictions on an adult woman?s right to an abortion.
According to the book, abortion data are difficult to collect. and national statistics can only be considered estimates. The figures included in this paper are primarily based on the data provided by the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI). AGI data are based on national surveys of health institutions and private physicians providing abortion services.
Today, about 40% of the 1.1 million pregnancies of females under the age of twenty annually are terminated by induced abortions. Nearly one-third of all abortions are done on women under the age of twenty. (Melton, 1986:41)
A substantial number and proportion of abortions are obtained by teenagers. In 1981 more than 1 in 4 of the estimated 1,577,340 abortions performed were to teenagers; 6 out of 10 to 15-19 year olds were to teenagers 18-19 years of age. The chart that I included on the following page lists the number and distribution of legal abortions, abortion rates per 1,000 women, and percentage of pregnancies terminated by abortion, by age group from 1973 to 1981. (Melton 1986:43)
The number of teenage abortions has risen since the Supreme Court decision in 1973, but not as rapidly as the number of abortions to other woman of childbearing age. From 1973 to 1981, the number of abortions to women aged 20-44 went from744,620 to 1,577,340 a rise of 112%. In contrast, the number of abortions to teenagers increased from 244,570 a rise of 84%. (Melton 1986:45)
The increase in number of abortions has been greater for older teenagers. Between the ages 15-19, the number of abortions went from 232,440 in 1973 to 433,330 in 1981, an increase of 86%. Below age 15, the increase was 31%, from 11,630 to 15,240. (Melton 1986:45)
Teenagers between 18 and 19 years of age have the highest demand for abortion services for women of any age, at 61.8 per 1,000 in 1981. For teenagers aged 15-17 years, the rate was 30.1%. For teenagers below age 15 it was 8.6. (Melton 1986:60)
The rise in teenage abortion rates has been greater than that for women of childbearing age overall. Between 1973 and 1981, abortion rates for teenagers between 15 and 19 years went from 22.8 to 43.3 an increase of 90%. For teenagers below 15, the increase was 54%, from 5.6 to 8.6. In comparison the increase for all females of childbearing age was 80%, from 16.3 to 29.3 (Melon 1986:46)
The rising rates of abortion in 1973 reflect a substantial rise in teenage sexual activity. By 1979 premarital sexual intercourse was not uncommon, with one out of two woman aged 15-19 reporting they had ever had sexual intercourse. For women, the average age for initial intercourse was 16.2 years. The average age for males was 15.7 years. Black women experienced intercourse at younger ages than whites. Over 36% of black females aged 15-19 had first experienced intercourse before age 15 and for whites it was 19%. (Melton 1986:81)
Among sexually active woman who wish to avoid pregnancy but do not practice effective contraception, the percentage of pregnancies terminated by abortion is high because many unwanted pregnancies are aborted.
A majority of teenage abortions are obtained by unmarried women, and abortion rates are higher for unmarried than for married teenagers overall.
Women who receive abortions usually have a number of psychological effects. Often, at first, the teenager feels relieved. This feeling of relief is present because they are glad that they won?t ever have to deal with that baby again. In the long run the teenager have life-long damage such as feelings of guilt and regret.
In addition to all of these negative feelings, it has been shown that there are, but few, positive results of an abortion. The teenager is most likely to have an increased use of birth control and usually more feelings of responsibility.
Abortion seems to have fewer and less socioeconomic consequences for a teenager than carrying a pregnancy to term and raising a child. Although having an abortion requires a young woman to raise a large sum of money on short notice, once the abortion is performed there are no financial obligations in the future.
The interpersonal consequences of an abortion center mainly on the possible damage to a young women?s relationships if her abortion is against others? wishes or moral standards. For example, if the father of the baby wants to keep the child and the woman disagrees, there can be some conflicting factors. Another example would be that if the parents of the teenager don?t want her to have an abortion because of religious reasons or maybe they are afraid of possible damage of the procedure, and the teenager goes ahead with the abortion anyway, they may be very angry at her and it could cause some family problems.
At the present time, a teenager in most cases has control over the interpersonal consequences of having an abortion because she decides who should be able to know the information that she is seeking or has had an abortion. In other words, a teenager can keep her abortion a secret by either not telling anyone about it or by telling certain trustworthy people.
LENGTH OF GESTATION
The length of gestation at which abortion is performed is a critical factor in evaluating the medical and psychological context of abortion. Younger women obtained abortions later in pregnancy than older women. The younger the teenager, the more likely the delay. For the 32 states reporting to the CDC in 1980, women under 19 years of age accounted for 29% of all abortions but accounted for more than 40% of abortions performed at more than 16 weeks of gestation. Of abortions obtained by adolescents aged 15 or less, 34% were performed at eight weeks or earlier in gestation, compared with 41% among 15-19 year olds and 51% among women aged 20-24. (Melton 1986:56)
Parental notification requirements, or the belief that such requirements exist even when clinics do not have such a policy, may also contribute to delay in seeking abortion. More than 4 in 10 facilities have parental notification requirements for girls aged 15 or younger, and 3 in 10 require parental consent or notification for 17-year olds.
Length of gestation affects cost and access to clinic service providers as well. In 1981 the average clinic charge for a first-trimester abortion was $190.00. The cost for a second-trimester dilation and evacuation averaged $358.00. Since only 21% of clinics provide second-trimester services, teenagers who delay seeking abortion must have them in the more expensive hospital setting, where the average cost of a second trimester is $740.00.
Cost continues to be an issue for teenagers. 9 in 10 teenagers aged 17 years or younger rely on their partners, parents, or Medicaid to defray the cost of abortion. In 1979, for teens 15 years or younger, 2 out of 5 had abortions paid for by their parents, one-fifth by their partners, and one-fourth by Medicaid. One-tenth shared the cost with parents or partner, and only 1 in 25 paid alone.
It is well documented that the risk of dying from complications related to childbirth is about 7 times the risk from having an abortion, combining all weeks of gestation.
Recent research suggests that teenagers have an even lower risk of death from abortion than women aged 20 years or older and have no higher risk of experiencing most of the complications associated with abortion, including fever of three or more days? duration, transfusion, and unintended surgery. Cervical injury is the only complication for which teenagers have a higher risk. From 1972 to 1978, the crude death-to-case rate for teenagers was 1.3 per 100,000 procedures. In contrast, the rate was 2.9 for women 30 and older. Death-to-case rates generally increased with the woman?s age within each gestation period. Although abortions performed on teenagers are generally safer than those on older women, the finding of 5.5 cervical injuries per 1,00 procedures prompted researchers to suggest that more gradual dilation of the cervix may help reduce the rate of cervical injury.
THE MALE ADOLESCENT
There is an increasing interest in the rights and responsibilities of the male partner regarding the outcome of pregnancy. Little is known about the effects an abortion has on the young male involved. There appears to be significant differences in attitudes toward abortion between black and white adolescent males. There was a reported study of more than 1,000 males, finding that the large majority of blacks were opposed to abortion on moral grounds and would not want their partner to have an abortion. On the other hand white males expressed the opposite attitude on both issues.
The attitudes, desires, and reactions of the male partner are largely unknown to researchers and healthcare providers, but there seems to be more interest in this area.
THEME OF THE BOOK
The overall theme of the book we chose to read is that since legalization in 1973, there has been lower costs, better medical results and overtime there has been more concentration on psychological effects and consequences of abortion. More recently, there has been more attention given to the effects of the adolescent male.
If we may add our personal opinion, we felt the book was very informative about the percents and ratios of adolescent abortions. We both feel that instead of the teenage pregnancy and abortion rates increasing, we would like to see more of an educational increase not only in schools, but also in the families in this area. We would also like our teens to be educated not only on the possibility of pregnancy, but also the risk of fatal sexually transmitted diseases that every teen thinks will never happen to them.