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Common Causal Arguments Essay

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David humes argument on all causal knowledge derives from experience

David humes argument on all causal knowledge derives from experience

Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015

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David Hume, an empiricist philosopher, argued that all causal knowledge derives from experience. He rejected the traditional rationalist view, which holds the necessity linking a cause and an effect as the same logical necessity of a demonstrative argument. Because of the principle of separability, Hume argued that there can be no a priori demonstration of any causal connection, since the cause can be conceived without its effect and conversely.

The principle of separability says that if two ideas are different, you can separate them in imagination. For example, Hume says that you can distinguish the color of an apple from its taste, but you can't distinguish the color of a marble sphere from its shape. Hume accepts epistemological atomism, which gives an objective decomposition of ideas into parts, and that the apple's color and smell correspond to different parts of the complex idea of the apple, while the marble sphere's distinct properties correspond to the same part.

Hume's principle of separability says that, "Where ever the imagination perceives a difference among ideas, it can easily produce a separation." In other words, if it is possible to 'distinguish' two ideas A and B, then it is also possible to 'separate them in imagination' by conceiving of 'A without B' or 'B without A'. Hume appeals to this principle at the beginning of some very important arguments including his objection to the rationalist notion of causal relations: a cause A necessarily brings about effect B, because A entails or logically/conceptually implies B. The appeal to the principle of separability allows to get the result that we can conceive of the future failing to resemble the past and of a cause unaccompanied by its usual effect. Thus, Hume argues that the connection between cause and effect can't be that a cause implies the existence of its effect or vice versa. He uses the principle of separability to argue for this point, saying that if one object did imply the existence of the other, then it would be impossible to conceive of the one without the other.

To explain contingency and necessary truths, Hume makes the distinction that our relationships with objects are either 'relations of ideas' or 'matters of fact'. "All the object of human reason or inquiry can naturally be divided into, relations of ideas and matters of fact."

'Relations of ideas' are parts of knowledge that are a priori, or not learned by experience. "Propositions of this kind are discoverable by the mere operation of thought, without dependence on what is anywhere existent in the universe." So geometry would be put in this category because of the relationship between lines and figures. These are necessary truths. The opposite to this type of knowledge is logically impossible. The example of how a square can never be a circle shows how the opposite of these claims do not make sense.

'Matters of fact' are parts of knowledge that are a posteriori, or learned through experience. An example of a matter of fact is that my name is Farhad. I could have been named something else, and I still would be the essentially the same object. "The contrary of every matter of fact is still possible, because it can never imply a contradiction and is conceived by the mind with the same facility and distinctness, as if ever so conformable to reality." These are contingent truths. So the opposite of a matter of fact can be true.

Hume argued that there was no perception of the supposed necessary connection between the cause and the effect. When a sequence of events that is considered causal is observed-for example, two billiard balls hitting each other and flying apart-there are impressions of the two balls, of their motions, of their collision, and of their flying apart, but there is no impression of any alleged necessity by which the cause brings about the effect. Thus, as stated earlier, it is not a logical contradiction to conceive a state of affairs contrary to the supposed rationalist view of causal relations.

Hume argued that the source of this idea is the perception of a relation of a constant conjunction. The perception of this constant conjunction leads the mind to form a certain habit or custom. It is this felt determination of the mind that affords us the idea of necessity. So instead of ascribing the idea of necessity to a feature of the natural world, Hume took it to arise from within the human mind, when the latter is conditioned by the observation of a regularity in nature to form an expectation of the effect, when the cause is present. He claimed that the supposed objective necessity in nature is projected by the mind onto the world.

Additionally, he argued that the the alleged necessity of causal connection cannot be proved empirically either-the problem of induction. As he famously argued, any attempt to show, based on experience, that a regularity that has held in the past will or must continue to hold in the future will be circular and question-begging. It will presuppose a principle of uniformity of nature. But this principle is not a priori true. Nor can it be proved empirically without circularity. For any attempt to prove it empirically will have to assume what needs to be proved-namely, that since nature has been uniform in the past it will or must continue to be uniform in the future.

7) As an atheist, it is not surprising that David Hume did not believe the miraculous claims made in the Bible or in the sacred stories of other religions. Hume argued that it is never rational for anyone to believe claims of miraculous events. The very meaning of the word 'miracle' makes it impossible for such claims not to be promptly disproved by the overwhelming body of evidence against them. More interestingly, Hume appears to say it would be irrational to believe in a miraculous event even if the event really did happen. In An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, Hume states that we have no compelling reason to believe in miracles. Our understanding of miracles relies exclusively on the secondhand testimony of others who claim to have experienced miracles, and since it is not our firsthand experience we should treat it as less reliable than our own. Hume argues that belief should be proportioned with evidence, and in instances where all evidence points to one conclusion, we can proceed to ascend to that belief with a high degree of certainty.

In the case of miracles, the only evidence for them arises from human testimony, which can be subject to delusion, deceit, ignorance and many other factors that influence the beliefs of people. He discredits the beliefs in miracles, because it goes against the laws of nature, and the testimony is most likely false, because: (1) People often lie, and they typically have good reasons to do so; (2) People by nature enjoy relating miracles they have heard without investigating the veracity of the events; (3) Hume notes that miracles seem to occur mostly in "ignorant" and "barbarous" nations and times, and the reason they don't occur in the "civilized" societies is such societies aren't fascinated by what they know to be natural events; (4) The miracles of each religion argue against all other religions and their miracles, and so the miracles of each religion make the other less likely. On the other hand, the evidence in contrary to miracles comes from the consistency and reliability of the laws of nature. Hume takes miracles as violations of the laws of nature. A simple extraction of Hume's argument can be outlined as such: (1) A miracle is a violation of the laws of nature: (2) Firm and unalterable experience has established these laws: (3) A wise man proportions his belief to the evidence: (4) Therefore, a uniform experience amounts to a proof; there is here a direct and full proof, from the nature of the fact, against the existence of any miracle.

This leads to an epistemological system, in which, it is sometimes more rational to believe a false proposition than a true one. However counter-intuitive as it may seem, this system is actually quite effective for ensuring that one does not add new beliefs without having sufficient evidence for them. Thus, Hume's epistemology allows for us to form new beliefs from new experiences, only if we have sufficient support or evidence for us to adopt the new set of belief(s). Hume discusses our common beliefs generally result from probability, where we believe an event that has occurred most often as being most likely, but that we also subtract the weighting of the less common event from that of the more common event; therefore, a miraculous event should be labeled a miracle only where it would be even more unbelievable (by principles of probability) for it not to be. This system helps Hume distinguish miracles from new experiences, because, as stated earlier, a miracle by definition renders qualities that are different from, in general, a new experience or new belief. Thus, the "new datum" of which a person may be subject to does not necessarily imply a contradiction or a major opposition to their beliefs, while a miracle by definition is such a major opposition and contradiction, as suggested earlier by Hume. In general, whenever there are multiple contrary claims, whichever one is most in accordance with previous experience is the one most rationally believed, and it should be believed with a level of certainty corresponding to the superiority of the evidence for it over that for the other claims. Regarding miracles, in particular, it is rational to believe miraculous claims only when the falsehood of all the evidence in favor of a claim would be more miraculous than whatever the claim seeks to establish.

The "uniform experience against every miraculous event. amounts to a proof. [So] there is here a direct and full proof, from the nature of the fact, against the existence of any miracle." The uniformity expressed here concerns the laws of nature. To be considered a law of nature, something must be uniformly in accordance with a huge body of experience. The entirety of this experience in turn weighs overwhelmingly against any claim that the law in question has been violated. Similarly, nothing is labeled as a miracle, if it ever occurs in the common course of nature. Hume argues since miracles are a violation of the laws of nature, they are contradicting the fundamental unalterable experiences that established these firm laws-this contradiction is the very proof against a miracle, since Hume defines the laws of nature to be what has been "uniformly" observed by mankind, such as the laws of identity and gravity. We can generalize Hume's argument against miracles here as such: (1) Miracles are violations of natural laws; (2) Natural laws are immutable; (3) It is impossible for immutable laws to be violated; (4) Therefore, miracles are not possible.

However, what Hume must mean here is that there is proof against every miraculous event claimed so far to have happened. He can't mean there is a direct and full proof against the future possibility of any miracle. The possibility of miracles admitting of proof certainly implies the possibility of miraculous events that go unproven. Without justification, beliefs, however true they may be, do not count as knowledge, and our (or at least Hume's) real goal is not just to increase the number of true beliefs we have, but to increase the number of things we know. But we must remember that even the idea of necessary connection, for Hume, comes only from experience. As such, we cannot expect proofs for him to have the same level of necessity, in the sense that valid arguments necessarily preserve truth, with which we today generally associate mathematical or geometrical proofs. Proofs do not necessarily produce true conclusions, they merely produce conclusions we can accept with as much assurance as we can have about anything based in experience.

Additionally, Hume's argument is one against the belief in miracles rather than against their existence, because just as the relationship of cause and effect is rooted in human experience, so are miracles. Human experience can only give rise to beliefs, it cannot make any definitive claims in regards to an objective reality outside of human experience. Miracles derive from human experience and therefore are the subject of belief rather than some independent existence in an objective reality outside of experience. Hence Hume argues against the belief in miracles rather than against the existence of them.

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Behind Mackie's Argument For Atheism - Mackie in his paper Evil and Omnipotence, constructs an argument against the idea of the possibility of a God existing that has the characteristics laid out by the main religions: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. These characteristics include that God is omnipotent, or He is capable of stopping evil, and omni benevolent, or He wants to eliminate evil and He is entirely good. Mackie systematically goes through his logical thought process as well as his response to any type of criticism or alternative solution that might arise. [tags: Atheism Religion Argument]

1968 words
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The Cosmological Argument is Self-contradictory - The Cosmological Argument, also known as the First Cause Argument, is one of the most important arguments for the existence of God, not only because it is one of the more convincing, but also because it is one of the most used. The thought that everything that happens must have a cause and that the first cause of everything must have been God, is widespread. The cosmological argument is the argument from the existence of the world or universe to the existence of a being that brought it into and keeps it in existence. [tags: Philosophy Religion First Cause Argument]

981 words
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The Effects of Stress and Personality on the Formation of Causal Attributions - The Effects of Stress and Personality on the Formation of Causal Attributions How we attribute behavior can have a profound effect on our analysis of it. For instance, attribution theory, which attempts to clarify why our explanations for a person’s behavior can differ so drastically, holds that we may attribute his or her behavior to dispositional (inner qualities) or situational (environmental) influences. Other factors such as stress and personality type also affect attribution formation, significantly increasing the number of attributions we make and our sense of control in a situation. [tags: Psychology]
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1251 words
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The Cosmological Argument and the Mystical Argument - The controversial topic involving the existence of God has been the pinnacle of endless discourse surrounding the concept of religion in the field of philosophy. However, two arguments proclaim themselves to be the “better” way of justifying the existence of God: The Cosmological Argument and the Mystical Argument. While both arguments attempt to enforce strict modus operandi of solidified reasoning, neither prove to be a better way of explaining the existence of God. The downfall of both these arguments rests on commitment of fallacies and lack of sufficient evidence, as a result sabotaging their validity in the field of philosophy and faith. [tags: Existence of God]
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1119 words
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Theories of Causal Attribution in Social Cognition - Theories of Causal Attribution in Social Cognition In social cognition causal attribution is one the most important models. In causal attribution we attempt to find cause-effect relationships between human behavior and possible causes which made it happen. There are seven different theories of causal attribution, and I shall talk about the Kelley’s covariation model and then talk about some biases in attribution. Kelley’s covariation model Kelley’s covariation model is a form of attribution model, possibly the best known of them all. [tags: Papers]

959 words
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Argument Against Euthanasia - Euthanasia is a Greek word which means, gentle and easy death. However, it is the other way around. It is not a gentle or easy death because there is not a type of death which can called gentle in the world. According to Ian Dowbiggin, in Ancient Greece people used euthanasia without patient's permission. It means that, in Ancient Greece they did not care about the voluntariness. Also, there are just few doctors who adjust themselves according to the Hippocratic Oath. (250 pp.) After coming of Christianity, church learnt how evil suicide was and they told people killing another person or themselves was a brutal behavior. [tags: Argument Against Assisted Suicide]
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1204 words
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Ernst Mayr's One Long Argument - Creationism vs. Evolutionism - Ernst Mayr's One Long Argument - Creationism vs. Evolutionism Challenging the accepted order of society always brings a wave of criticism and contempt. In Ernst Mayr's One Long Argument, he aggressively brings to the forefront of debate the notion that his predecessors had heatedly argued for years, that man is not a divinely created creature, but rather just another animal in a state of constant change. Examining the path Charles Darwin, had followed in his attempt to better understand the evolutionary path of man, noted biologist Ernst Mayr explains Darwinian theory in respects to not only evolution but also in respect to the belief that man is somehow a creature made of a higher d. [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays]

853 words
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Argument in an Essay - Argument can be defined as claim or thesis statement. The aim of an argument is to convince audience. It is essential to make sound argument so that audience could engage in and align with the author’s view. Therefore, one of the key elements could be identified as the awareness of audience. Another key element is evidence. In order to persuade audience, argument should be consolidated through evidence and authority. The credibility of author and argument could be enhanced by means of using evidence and referring to authorities. [tags: Education, College, Thesis]

963 words
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The No Selves Argument - Thomas Nagel, in “Brain Bisection and the unity of consciousness,” presents a thesis for the nonexistence of selves in human beings. Selves, in the case of Nagel’s argument, are the physiological bases of mind that constitute the subject of experience. A self may be thought of as the fundamental person, or the “Personal Identity”. There has been substantial difficulty in identifying the number of persons present in a human being, and the initial and seemingly apparent answer of “one” becomes less convincing upon inspection of further evidence. [tags: Neurology]
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2299 words
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Does the Causal Theory of Knowledge Solve the Gettier Problem? - The purpose of this paper is to argue that Alvin Goldman's paper "A Causal Theory of Knowing" does not solve the problem in Edmund Gettier's paper "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?" To argue the old view of knowledge, Gettier presents a case in which a Subject (S) is justified in believing that a proposition (P) and P entails another proposition (Q). S deduces Q from P and accepts Q. Then S is justified in believing Q. In the first Case that Gettier presents however, P is falsely justified, but Q is a true justified belief: Smith (S) is justified in believing that Jones is the man who will get the job and Jones has ten coins in his pocket (P). [tags: Philosophy]

467 words
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Annotated Argument-The Belle Curve - Table of Contents The Bell Curve Chapter 1 – “Cognitive Class and Education, 1900-1990 1) It is not just the case that more people are going to college, but that the brighter students are the ones attending. 2) Admission became more related to I.Q. than in the past. 3) There is a small part of the population that are expected to fill positions of power, yet they cannot relate to the majority of the population. Chapter 2 – “Cognitive Partitioning By Occupation 1) The correlation between I.Q. [tags: Annotated Argument]

6637 words
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Cultural Differences and Cognition Explaining Human Behavior - In another case, Na et al. (2013) conducted a study to test whether individuals would favor those who reasoned in a culturally representative way over those who did not. They found interesting results between Koreans and Americans. The first study demonstrated that in Korea holistic thinkers were favored more compared to Americans who favored analytical thinkers. In the second study, they found that Koreans preferred to seek advice regarding their social problems from those who held a holistic perspective and considered them to be wiser, while Americans sought advice from analytical thinkers because they considered them to think more rationally. [tags: causal attribution,holistic and analytical thinker]
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1633 words
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The Teleological Argument - William Paley and David Hume’s argument over God’s existence is known as the teleological argument, or the argument from design. Arguments from design are arguments concerning God or some type of creator’s existence based on the ideas of order or purpose in universe. Hume takes on the approach of arguing against the argument of design, while Paley argues for it. Although Hume and Paley both provide very strong arguments, a conclusion will be drawn at the end to distinguish which philosophiser holds a stronger position. [tags: Philosophy/Religion]
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1384 words
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The Bachelor's Argument - Dan Moller defends the argument he calls “the bachelor’s argument,” which is an “argument against marriage.” By pointing out how not everyone that gets married isn’t guaranteed a happy and successful out come, such as a happy and loving marriage. If we were follow through with the bachelor’s argument as if it was set standard set in stone, not giving marriage a chance could possibly lead to the lose of one finding true because they never got a chance to marry the person they thought they’d love and could have lasting relationship. [tags: Relationships]

991 words
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An Arrogant Argument - One of the most destructive and arrogant persons in history was Adolf Hitler. The destruction that he and his regime brought on humanity has seldom seen its equal. In reality the Holocaust was a terrible horror, but in Hitler’s mind it was merely a brushstroke in the masterpiece that he believed he was creating. Hitler believed that the Aryan race was superior to all others and that it was only natural, and not cruel, that the higher would show no humanity toward the lower (296). This prejudiced belief predominated Hitler’s thinking. [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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1395 words
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Argument of Power - In this paper I am addressing the following question; are conditional accounts of forgiveness true. Conditional forgiveness is when the victim does not forgive the wrongdoer until he/she repents or comes forth with some type of merciful act. “Conditional accounts traditionally make the appropriateness of forgiveness conditional on the severity of the offense and the attitudes and behavior of the offender.” (Wolfendale, 344) Conditional account, waiting to forgive until the wrongdoer repents, leaves the power in the hands of the wrongdoer. [tags: Case Study]
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1063 words
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Clarifying an Argument - Clarifying an Argument Sherry Turkle, a professor at MIT, current director of the MIT initiative on Technology and Self, in her 2007 “Can You Hear Me Now?” for Forbes Magazine, she addresses the topic of technology and discusses society’s growing attachment and alienation caused by it. Turkle wrote the article for an educated, older and business interested audience, there are references and terms that need clarification for most people. She discusses the Blackberry throughout the article, which is not concretely defined. [tags: Article Analysis, Technology Effects]
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690 words
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Argument for Euthanasia - Argument for Euthanasia You were in a tragic car accident on your way to work. You have been in coma for years. Your family is not only devastated because of your state, they are also having a hard time trying to pay off all of your expenses. You were not insured, and your family is forced to keep paying the bills needed to keep you “alive”. Your family is going completely bankrupt and you still show no sign of getting better. Your family wants to pull the plug, but doing so would be illegal in the United States; so the doctor doesn’t permit this. [tags: Healthcare System, Patient Rights]
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2058 words
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An Argument Against Gun Control - Should the mere fact that criminals committing crimes with the use of guns infringe the national right of the innocent to possess guns. This is a question that arouses everywhere and no matter which way it is viewed the controversy will always go on. "A gun is a mere tool that can be used for good or evil. Our country is based on the belief that man is good until he or she is proven to be otherwise."(Harris p.2) This means that only a few people are committing crimes with uses of guns and why completely remove them from society. [tags: Argument Against Gun Control]
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965 words
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The Argument of Sociology is Based on Relationships - Creating a good argument, this is an argument which will persuade the opposing side into accepting that the claim which was made, as well as the grounds of the claim, is different for each social science. It is usual for individuals to pull from their personal experiences, their views, morals, and interpretation of things when formulating an argument. The same goes for the various social sciences. Each social science approaches an argument in a different manner, and gives different aspects of an argument a higher regard. [tags: Sociology Essays]

698 words
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Descartes Argument for the Existence of God - Descartes employs what is known as an ontological argument to prove the existence of God. Saint Anselm who lived during the 11th century first formulated this type of argument. Since then it has proved popular with many philosophers including Rene` Descartes. Even though ontological arguments have lost popularity with modern philosophers there has been some recent attempts to revive them. Descartes formulation is regarded as being one of the best because it is straight forward and relatively easy to follow. [tags: philosophy, theology]

1171 words
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The Dream Argument by Rene Descartes - One of Rene Descartes’s most famous arguments, from his not only from his first meditation but all of the meditations, is his Dream Argument. Descartes believes that there is no way to be able to distinguish being in awake from being in a state of dreaming. In fact you could actually be in a dream right now. Rene Descartes’s theory that one is unable distinguish being awake from dreaming, as interesting as it is, can be at times a little farfetched, along with a few contradictions to himself, Descartes’s dream argument does not entitle himself to any sort of claim. [tags: Descartes Theory, Dreaming, Awake]
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1011 words
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An Argument for the Permissibility of Active Euthanasia - Recently I have gone through the very difficult struggle of seeing my father come face to face with death. He was in the hospital, in a comatose state for nearly eight days. During that time, because he left me as his medical proxy, I was the one that made the decision about what course of action was to be take. It is my aim in this paper to address the question of whether or not it is ever permissible to actively aid in the death of another person. I will attempt to argue that active euthanasia can at times not only be permissible, but the correct action to take. [tags: Assisted Suicide, Right to Die]
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1797 words
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The Argument for and Against Gender Quotas - Discuss the arguments for and against gender quotas aimed at increasing the percentage of women in national parliaments. Consider the implications of your argument for different quota systems. The debate regarding gender identities in politics is today a protruding aspect in our society. Both the domestic and international gender roles and norms are central in the developments in the field of political science and International Relations. The inclusion of women into formal politics through quota systems is one of the key issues in focus for both the current societal debate as well as much of the academic work in the field. [tags: gender identities, affirmative actions]
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1530 words
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The Argument of the Legality and Morality of Euthanasia - Euthanasia is the act of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering. The House of Lords Select Committee on Medical Ethics of England defines euthanasia as a deliberate intervention undertaken with the intention of ending a life, to relieve suffering(Harris, NM. 2001). in the Netherlands euthanasia is defined as the termination of life by a doctor at the request of a patient(BBC,2011). The right to die debate posses a great number of legal, moral and ethical issues. Proponents and supporters of euthanasia had presented valid arguments: people have the right of self-determination and that is why they should be allowed to choose their own fate; is a better choice to assist an i. [tags: Autonomy, Right to Die]
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644 words
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The Argument of Whether Robots Are Human - “Man is a robot with defects,” (Emile Cioran, The Trouble With Being Born). Humans' are not perfect, but we seem to strive for perfection, so who is to say that in the future robots will not out number the human race on Earth. In Star Trek: The Next Generation, the character Data is very much a robot and not human, being composed of inorganic materials but designed with a human appearance (an android), but does that make it just a robot. In the show it is proposed that for one to be a sentient being and a person they must possess three qualities, intelligence, self-awareness, and consciousness. [tags: Intelligence, Technology]
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1178 words
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An Argument Against Animal Testing - There have been many attempts to validate the case against animal rights. It has been perceived that humans are separate beings from animals not only on a physical level, but also through rational autonomy and morality. There is a forgotten aspect in this argument though. Within society there are many people who do not have these qualities, including the mentally disabled and babies (Singer). This creates the assumption that to consider animals deficient of rights is to insinuate that the mentally disabled and babies are void of rights as well. [tags: Rational Autonomy, Morality]
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637 words
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Analysis of Adam's Argument To Eve - In Book IV of Milton’s Paradise Lost, Eve recounts her memory of her first living moments to Adam. Eve relates that upon seeing Adam, she turned around and began walking in the opposite direction. Eve then quotes the exact words Adam used to convince her to stay: “Return fair Eve. …my other half” (page 91, lines 481-488). Upon examining Adam’s words, I discovered that Adam takes advantage of Eve’s lack of knowledge when reasoning with her. He doesn’t tell her everything. He keeps a few pieces of important information to himself. [tags: Character Analysis]

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The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis - The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis An old adage says, “In quarreling, the truth is always lost,” (Bolander, 1987). The truth is often considered subjective; it depends on circumstances, time, and many other variables. We understand that what is truth to one may not be truth to another, and after reading Dr. Tannen’s work, I realized that she has done exactly what she said exacerbates the argumentative culture we live in today. She has looked at only two sides. Due to this, I would call into question Dr. [tags: Article Analysis ]
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1457 words
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The Argument Against Uniforms in Schools - I don’t think children or teens should have to wear school uniforms. It deprives them of their freedom of speech. They should have the right to wear what they want when they want. The uniforms are degrading and appalling. Everything would be dull and boring if everyone looked the same and wore the same stuff. Whatever happened to our U.S. Constitution. Some kids become stressed out and could get depressed because they cannot choose what they can wear, In Our own country. The land of the free and the home of the brave and we can’t even choose what we wear. [tags: Freedom of Speech, Socioeconomic Differences]
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794 words
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The Argument for Reincarnation in Hinduism - The concept of reincarnation is related to karma, karma deals with a system of rewards and punishment based on the actions of the individual (Oxtopy & Segal 266). Due to bad karma by the individual, it takes many lifetimes for the karma to be worked out; reincarnation also known as samsara in Hinduism is an ongoing cycle of death and rebirth. To be released from the cycle of samsara, to achieve moksha one must reach enlightenment (Oxtopy & Segal 266-267). In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna, an incarnation of the ultimate deity as a personal god in the Hindu religion, explains three ways to moksha: the way of action, the way of knowledge, and the way of devotion. [tags: karma, samsara]
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1403 words
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An Argument Against a Presupposition - In The American Democracy and Its National Principle, Herbert Croly makes an eloquent and poignant case for adopting a nationalistic frame of mind. According to Croly, we are rapidly approaching a junction where we must choose between the traditional values, measures and mind set of our past or embrace the opportunities of the future. As a people we should realize that the future holds great promise, and that is why we should focus on empowering a centralized system of governance that replaces the antiquated approach to governance: regional centricity whose players are driven by their self-interest rather than the common good. [tags: Political Science]
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1655 words
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The Argument of Capital Punishment - There not many issues in the criminal justice system that have caused more heated discussions and arguments as consistent and strong as that of the argument of capital punishment. There have been many religious arguments involved in both sides of the argument, citing both the need for justice and the sanctity of human life. This debate regarding the death penalty has become a complex issue in recent years with concerns as to the equality of the criminal justice system, the position of physicians in assisting in executions, and the likelihood of reform, improvement and rehabilitation amid individuals currently serving on death row. [tags: Capital Punishment, Death Penalty]
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1845 words
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Paley's Argument for God's Existence - Since the beginning of time, society has been plagued by questions stemming past the grasp of human understanding. In attempt to explain such bewilderment, mankind formed a principle belief regarding their presence as the workings of a more capable being, God. As time has progressed, distinguished and scholarly members of society have come forward with ideas regarding some distinct understanding into the complex subject that is god. To this day, students are taught theories that have managed to stand the test of time and interpretation, theories that are highly respected by the top scholars of this century. [tags: Earthly Inferences, Human Existence]
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1014 words
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Argument Between Science and Religion - Why would educated, reasonable people believe in one side of an argument when the majority of the evidence points to the other. The argument between science and religion began with Charles Darwin publishing Origin of the Species, and since then, is still a conflict, because every individual questions: Where do people come from. Where does the earth come from. The universe. Not only Charles Darwin, but many scientist who followed Charles Darwin as a paragon of evolution, found evidence and answers to argue that evolution is the more reasonable theory in the question of: Where did everything come from. [tags: evolution, creationism, genesis, big bang]
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1547 words
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Socrates Argument in the Crito - Introduction Socrates argues in the Crito that he shouldn't escape his death sentence because it isn't just. Crito is distressed by Socrates reasoning and wishes to convince him to escape since Crito and friends can provide the ransom the warden demands. If not for himself, Socrates should escape for the sake of his friends, sons, and those who benefit from his teaching. Socrates and Crito's argument proceeds from this point. As an aside, I would like to note that, though I believe that a further objection could be made to Socrates conclusions in “The Philosopher's Defense”, due to space considerations, I didn't write the fourth section “Failure of the Philosopher's Defense”. [tags: Philosophy]

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An Argument Against Racial Profiling - "I don't want to talk about whether or not racial profiling is legal. Racial profiling is not an effective law enforcement tool." -- Eric Holder, 82nd Attorney General of the United States Before any argument can be made against racial profiling, it is important to understand what racial profiling is. The American Civil Liberties Union, defines racial profiling as "the discriminatory practice by law enforcement officials of targeting individuals for suspicion of crime based on the individual's race, ethnicity, religion or national origin"(Racial Profiling: Definition). [tags: Black Lives Matter Essays]
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1120 words
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Argument For the Death Penalty - Should any individual be killed for their crimes or mistakes. Adam Liptak, a writer for the New York Times, found that, “According to roughly a dozen recent studies, executions save lives. For each inmate put to death, the studies say, 3 to 18 murders are prevented.” Therefore, the death penalty must be upheld in the United States of America in order to protect its citizens and to properly enforce justice. The death penalty ensures fair retribution for the loved ones of the criminal’s victim. [tags: Pro Death Penalty]
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1306 words
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The Argument For Nuclear Energy - “You don’t ban the beneficial uses of a technology just because that same technology can be used for evil. Otherwise we would never have harnessed fire.” -Patrick Moore, a Greenpeace co-founder- About two-thirds of electricity used globally today is generated from fossil fuels using the energy created from burning fuels such as coal and gas, which release greenhouse gases. These trap heat in the atmosphere and cause global warming. Moreover no more fuels are predicted being formed in the near future to replace what is being used up since fossil fuels finite and nonrenewable. [tags: Electricity, Technology]
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1430 words
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An Argument Against Racial Profiling - Racial profiling is when an officer of law targets an individual not on their behavior, but rather their personal characteristics, such as race, ethnicity, national origin and religion. Racial profiling has been an issue that dates back earlier than the 1700's. Then when the fourth and fourteenth amendments were created, some thought racial profiling would simmer down. The fourth amendment states that the government is prohibited from any unreasonable seizes or searches; while the fourteenth amendment states that all men are presented with equal protection of the law. [tags: Race, Ethnicity, National Origin, Religion]
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2119 words
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Tense in Formal and Informal Arguments - Tense is one of the most significant disparities between formal arguments in classical first-order logic and informal arguments. Tense is a vital grammatical tool for expressing both actions and states of objects. Yet the syntax of classical first-order logic is not designed to accommodate tense. In this paper I shall evaluate several attempts to address the issue of the formal treatment of tense. I will seek to determine how tense is important to the consequence relations among sentences. [tags: Tense Arguments Logic Essays]

3190 words
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Argument for Stopping Animal Abuse - Executive Summary Every 60 seconds an animal is abused. Dogs, cats, horses, and many other types of animals are being neglected and tortured everyday, yet resulting in few and minor consequences for the perpetrators. Animal abuse is prevalent in the United States and has been an ongoing issue since the 1970's, and prior to. Society as a whole has chosen to avoid the facts and arguments about animal cruelty, because to some it is seen as acceptable and typical. It becomes much more frowned upon when people actually see the results of the cruelty, especially in the media. [tags: Animal Treatment, Animal Rights]
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2126 words
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Moral Realism's Indispensability Argument - There are many arguments for moral realism, one of which is presented by David Enoch, who posits a unique explanation of how normative truths can exist. He argues for moral realism by using his Indispensability Argument, which explains the necessity of normative facts in deliberation. I will argue that Enoch’s claim is valid in that it fairs well against opposition, however it shows weakness by not addressing moral subjectivity. To begin, David Enoch defends moral realism using his Indispensability Argument. [tags: Philosophy]

1969 words
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An Argument Against Abortion - The right to life is the most basic and important right that we have. In the past two hundred years, over one million Americans have died for their country. Monuments have been built and speeches have been delivered, honoring these American heroes. America is now engaged in a war where there are no heroes, no monuments or tributes - only victims. Our society has declared war on its most helpless members - our unborn children. Since that war was declared on January 22, 1973, there have been over 35 million deaths. [tags: The Right to Life, Pro-Life Essays]

1405 words
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The Chinese Room Argument - John Searle formulated the Chinese Room Argument in the early 80’s as an attempt to prove that computers are not cognitive operating systems. In short though the immergence of artificial and computational systems has rapidly increased the infinite possibility of knowledge, Searle uses the Chinese room argument to shown that computers are not cognitively independent. John Searle developed two areas of thought concerning the independent cognition of computers. These ideas included the definition of a weak AI and a strong AI. [tags: Computer Science]
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907 words
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Television and Media Essay - Four Arguments for the Elimination of TV - Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television Television technology has been a controversial issue since its debut in the early 1940s. In order to fully understand any controversial issue, one must be presented with both the pro and the con sides of the issue. One must understand and be able to argue both sides of the issue in order to become a successful and well-educated person. Being a member of the pro-technological society, one is well educated on the pro side of this issue. [tags: Media Argumentative Persuasive Argument]

2657 words
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