Hinduism and Islam are two of the world’s three largest religions. Orthodox Hinduism is the socio-religious way of life of the Hindu people of the Indian subcontinent. their diaspora, and some other regions which had Hindu influence in the ancient and medieval times. Islam is a monotheistic religion in which the supreme deity is Allah and the last prophet being Muhammad ibn Abdullah. Orthodox Hinduism mostly shares common terms with the dhārmic religions, including Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Islam shares common terms with the Abrahamic religions (those religions claiming prophet Abraham ), i.e. Judaism and Christianity.
The scriptures of Islam are the Qurān. which is primary book because it is considered the word of God, and the several Shia and Sunni Hadīths. which are secondary in authority, and deal with the life and acts of Islamic Prophet Muhammad. The scriptures of Orthodox Hinduism are the Shrutis (the four Vedas and their three tier of commentaries), which are considered authentic, most authoritative and Divine Revelation. Furthermore, Hinduism is also based on the Smritis (including the Ramāyana, the Bhagavad Gītā and the Purānas), which are considered by be of secondary authority and human creation.
Nevertheless, Hinduism and Islam do have many similarities, as well as differences, as discussed below.Moral and Ethical behaviour
Hinduism encourages duty based philosophy.Rituals and Fasting
Both religions encourage a family system, having progeny and respect for elders. Orthodox Hindus [citation needed ] and Muslims condemn homosexuality. The two religions also share similarity when it comes to religious rituals. For example, five times Namaz in Islam and Naam Jap/Prayers in Hinduism. Muslims observe a strict fast during Ramadan and Hindus do so on different days and occasions. Muslims are encouraged to give to charity (Zakat) during Ramadan whereas Hindus have 3 1/2 days reserved for charity work.Theology and Concept of God
Islam follows a strictly monotheistic faith. There is One God in Islam, and only One, and this principle of monotheism is called Tawhīd. and there can be no compromise on Tawhīd.
In contrast, Hinduism's belief in God can be variously categorized as monotheism, monism, henotheism or polytheism. To understand the concept of God in Hinduism, it is necessary to know that Orthodox Hinduism has six systems of philosophy, viz.:
The last one, Vedānta is further split into sub-branches, of which the most popular is Advaita Vedanta propounded by Sage Adi Shankara in the Early-Medieval India. Each philosophical system and sub-system has its own distinct concept of God. This leads to a variety of concepts of God in Hinduism.Scriptures Angels versus Devī-Devatās Saints and Holy men
Muslims do not believe in the concept of saints, whereas Hindus do. Many states in India have their own patron saints. However, Sufi Muslims believe in the concept of Wilayat (sainthood), and revere all the great Sufis as Walis (saints). Many such Sufi saints are buried in India, such as Moinuddin Chishti. Nizamuddin Auliya. Hazrat Babajan. and many others.Meat and food habits
Muslims cannot eat pork or any pig byproducts. They can not consume alcohol in any form. Hindus cannot eat beef or slaughter cows, The first hymn of yajurveda prohibit humans to kill animal and eat. Only a certain section of Hindus believe that anything and everything is acceptable in Hinduism as it monotheistic, pantheistic, atheistic at the same time. So it is more of a socio-cultural way of living than just a religion.Dress code One life versus Reincarnation
Muslims believe that each person has a body and soul. At death, your body is separated from your soul. Your faith and actions in this life will determine your fate in the Life After Death. There is a Day of Judgment when this life will come to an end for every one, and all humans from Adam to the last person, will be brought to a second life, rejoining of your body and soul. On that Day, God will put people in Hell or Heaven based on their beliefs and deeds of this life.
While Hinduism believes in body and soul. Your soul leaves your body after your death. It gets another body and life depending on the total sum your past Karma, good or bad deeds. Your status or caste and even species in next life depends on your deeds of the previous life. This is called Reincarnation in Hinduism. One can get Mukti or Moksha. the freedom from this cycle of birth and death and ultimate peace ( and also reunion with God according to many), if one nullifies all of one's Karma, by any one or many of these ways of worship: Bhakti Yoga. Raja Yoga. Karma Yoga. Sankhya Yoga, etc.Hindu and Islamic social systems
During the Muslim conquests, Islam gained many converts on the Indian sub-continent primarily from Hinduism or Buddhism; the two dominant local religions. Inter-marriage and immigration from other Islamic lands have helped in instilling this idea in the people of Greater India. Many of the new Muslim rulers looked down upon the idea Hinduism as having Iconodulistic religious practices and were to various degrees iconoclastic. Prominent examples of these are Mahmud of Ghazni and the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb on either end of the timeline for Islamic rulers. In addition, Muslims in India also developed a caste system that divided the Foreign-descended "Ashraf" Muslims and the "Ajlaf" converts, with the "Arzal" untouchables at the lowest rung [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ]
In contrast there were also many Muslim kings who wished to live in harmony with the Hindus for interests of the Islamic empire. Akbar and Ibrahim Adil Shah II of Bijapur Adil Shah dynasty are notable examples. Akbar's court was home to intellectuals and saints both Hindu and Muslim, among them the great musician Tansen who converted to Islam, and he (Akbar) even went so far as to try and create a new religion (the din ilahi ) to create a rapprochement of both creeds for creating a stable empire. 'Todar Mal' who was highly regarded Hindu minister (vizir) of Akbar. [ 7 ] Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi. does not credit Akbar for saving the temple instead gives credit to the "infidels" for building their own temple by demolishing the mosque. [ 8 ] Frustration in the sub-continent grew as a result of this leading to the gradual decline of the Muslim mughal empire replaced by the Sikhs, Marathas, the Vijayanagara kingdom and later the British.
In the last 60 years after Indian independence, the Muslims have had to live without the preferential treatment that was offered to them during the days of the sultanates and even during the British Raj's positive discrimination against the Muslims as a part of the divide and rule policy. The communal tensions between the Hindus and the Muslims have erupted many a times during this period. Notable incidents of this phenomenon include the demolition of the Babri Masjid and the Gujrat Riots of 2002.
Kabir wrote poetry and preached to the people, advocating a blend of philosophy and spiritual practices. Sufism as a whole is primarily concerned with direct personal experience, and as such may be compared to various esoteric forms of mysticism such as Bhakti form of Hinduism. Hesychasm. Zen Buddhism. Kabbalah. Gnosticism and Christian mysticism .
The synergy between certain Sufis and Bhaktas in many regions of India led to Muslim and Hindu laity worshiping together at a mazar (Sufi shrine). However, Muslim and Sikh conflict erupted in India fueled by a history of regional politics, nationalism, continued conflict and the partition movements during independence from the British Raj in 1947.
However the main proponents of this new synergy included Saints like Rumi. Shirdi Sai Baba and Kabir today it can be said it exits in the form of the Qawwali
Qawwali is a form of devotional Sufi music common in Afghanistan. India. Iran. Pakistan. Tajikistan and Turkey. It is known for its secular strains. Some of its modern-day masters have included Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and the Sabri Brothers. Amir Khusro. a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya. of the Chishti Order. is credited with inventing Qawwali in the 14th century.
Mughal art forms, especially miniatures and even certain niches of Urdu poetry, were quick to absorb classic Hindu motifs, like the love story of Krishna and Radha. [ 9 ] Hindustani classical music is a complex and sonorous blend of Vedic notions of sound, raga and tala and absorbed a many instruments of either Middle Eastern origin or Indian-Muslim invention such as the ghazalReferences
Nor, for that matter, is the explanation of the existence of caste and social hierarchy among Muslims as a result of the baneful impact of hierarchical Hinduism on egalitarian Islam .
The speech was apparently very well received, and was shortly published as a booklet, suitably titled Masla-i Kufw Aur Isha'at-i Islam ('The Problem of Kafa'a and the Spread of Islam ').
Nu'mani sees this restrictive provision as making life for converts to Islam even more difficult and, therefore, making conversion to Islam a difficult choice for non-Muslims.
But while it existed, much of its support was derived from Islam and Islam ic countries./2/ While the prescriptions by the Prophet regarding the just and humane treatment of slaves contained in the Koran are praiseworthy, there is nothing whatever in Islam that lends support to the abolition of this curse.
The conversion of Muslim woman to Hinduism and of Hindu woman to Islam. looked at from a social and political point of view, cannot but be fraught with tremendous consequences.
Slohart, commenting on this subject in his book, Islam. and its Founder, says: 'Some Mohamodans make a habit of continually changing their wives.
Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Death and dying is equally important among all religions. Different religions have different values, beliefs, tradition, social customs and attitude regarding about death and dying. Among all of them, the most common experience is that a person's death always leaves the shadowy moment among all the relatives and the family members. Death is always connected with us and we are at the state of transition. Every living body has to die. However, religion occupies a significance space regarding about death and dying. The religion has its own norms and values to define the death. Among different religions, Hinduism and Islam define death as the period of sorrow even-though Hinduism believes in reincarnation but Islam does not. Hinduism views life as a wheel of salvation while life means a way to meet the almighty Allah in Islam. Thus, two different religions have two different perspectives of viewing life and death depending upon their religions.
The Bhagvada Gita also tells about the moral of life and death. During the battle of Kurukshetra, the Pandava brother, "Arjuna", has to kill his guru, "Dronacharya" who taught him the most powerful skill of bow and arrow. Nobody can defeat the Arjuna in archery. Since, Dronacharya belongs to the Kaurava, the Pandava brother Arjuna has to kill his own guru to win the battle of Mahabharata. The Lord Krishna chants poem about birth and living. He said to Arjuna that death in unavoidable to those who are born and birth is certain for those who had died. So, there is no reason to grieve if something in unavoidable. So, death is an inescapable. Death always stands upon its honor in the battle field. It is fair to illuminate the injustice and inequality to obtain the mokshya known as liberation. Thus, the saying of the Lord Krishna to Arjuna provides him a moral sense and knowledge of being born into this universe and reacts upon the essence of justice against immorality.
Like in Bhagvada Gita, another holy scripture Ramayana also tells about the significance of death and dying. Bali and Sugriva are the brother of the same blood. Though Sugriva is younger than the Bali, Bali has treated him like a slave. However, Sugriva doesn't argue about the matter. He just wants to take care of him for the whole life. Despite the circumstance, Bali has received a terrific boon after his tough meditation for twelve years. He has a greed upon his bravery and courageous. He has captivated Sugriva's wife Tara for a long period of time. So, Sugriva is frustrated and asked about sharing of the Kiskindha kingdom. But, Bali refused it and threw him out of the kingdom. Sugriva doesn't know what to do. One day, his follower Hanuman found Rama and Arjuna wandering in the dense forest and became closer to each other. Then, Hanuman introduce Rama and Arjuna with Sugriva and Sugriva told the events about how he has to live in mountain despite having the kingdom. So, Rama told Sugriva to call Bali upon the battle field. Sugriva did the same thing as Rama told to him. After a long battle between Sugriva and Bali, Rama killed Bali by using his archery. Upon his deathbed, Bali asked Rama about his crime. He asked what he has done to him. Who are you to kill him? Why you kill me like a terror? Why don't you show in-front of me? Then Rama replied to Bali that he has done injustice with his brother. Rama told that his father Dasaratha taught him about the moral of law and order and finally for his last question, he replied to him that the kings used to hunt deer by shading in some corners. As soon as the message spreaded over the kingdom, Tara came on the spot and cried and begged his husband back from Rama. Rama told Tara that why are you crying without thinking that the body is dead only not the soul. If you think that the dead body is your husband then why don't you think about his soul? You are on an illusion of body and soul. I respect his soul and he will be placed in a higher standard in the heaven. Tara realized that the body only decomposes not the soul. Even, if the person is dead, s/he will be highly recognized into the society for a long period of time.
Swami Nikhilananda, the great disciple of Ramayana also said that human being should not worry about the contemporary cause and effect which is known to them. He also added that body can undergo certain metamorphism where the internal reality or the soul doesn't change rather than the illusion known as the Maya creates the desire and identifies as the self. We have to understand that the self in not the Brahmin.
Following these two great scriptures, Hinduism is the religion about reincarnation. The state of being human being today is the outcome of the deeds that have been conducted in the past. After several reincarnations, we are human being now. The salvation occurs only by achieving Mokshya and Mokshya can be achieved by learning Karma yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti yoga, taking the path of devotion and learning the Holy Scripture like Bhagvada Gita and the great epic Ramayana. The ultimate way of reaching the supreme goal is to unite with Brahman.
Islam is one of the fastest growing religions in the world. While Hinduism believes in polytheism, Islam believes in monotheism. Islam means submission to the god. Literally, the meaning carries a greater detail. Islam or being a Muslim means high attitude of the self. Islam believes Muhammad as the messenger of the god. The god determines the lifespan of the person. It is the god's mercy to take the person in younger age or in the older age. The Muslim believes that god created them and they have to move according to the way that the god wants. Some Muslim believes that after death, two black faced angels with blue eyes known as Munkar and Nakir visit the graveyard and ask the deceased about his life when he was alive. Upon interrogation, the person has to tell the truth. Depending upon the saying of the deceased, the process of punishment and comfort will be justified. Like in Hinduism, Islam also believes in heaven and hell where heaven means full of beautiful nymphs and the enjoyment with the spouse while hell means the place with thorns and evil souls.
When the person is lying on the deathbed, the priestly people read some passages from the Quran to facilitate the dying body to release from the physical world. After death, washing of the dead body is done and purified by the Moullana, the holy priest. The body is covered with the white cloth. The main difference between the Christianity and the Muslim is that no coffins come between the body and the earth. Building other structures are not allowed in Islam and as well as writing on the stone. Some Muslim believes that the graveyard should be dig deep enough to the dead so that the dead body can be able to sit up during the period of the Last Judgment. The grave is laid in the direction of north to south rather than east to west. The main reason behind doing that is the holy Mosque lies towards east to west. So, the deceased face is pointed towards the Mecca. It is customary to say Allah Karim which means upon the mercy of god we came into this earth and upon the mercy of him, we shall go.
Muslim views their life as a mission into this earth. The main mission is to take care of the whole life seriously as per the commandment of the god. The people have to be physically and as well as mentally fit to take care of the whole life. Spiritually, the people have to keep faith on Allah and strictly obey his saying. According to the Islam, no older person would be the burden into the society. When older person get sick or being incapable of helping themselves, the younger one should take care of them and offer them nutritious foods. The family members of the dead have to fulfill any debts of the deceased person as soon as possible. Just like in Hinduism, Islam also allows offering charity and fasting on the name of the deceased person. The family member can visit the grave to maintain the strong attachment with the deceased and as well as to observe the day of the judgment.
According to Islam, death should be properly understood because it is the part of the living. Sometimes, we feel scare of discussing about death and dying because we don't want to die. We are so afraid of it. But, for Muslims, this is not the right attitude against the Allah. The Prophet Muhammad said that you have to live in this world like a traveler. Once come never return back. The destination of the journey is to meet with the almighty Allah.
Death is followed by the pain and suffering. Sometimes, people become agony on death and dying. They are pathetic. According to the Allah, pain and suffering is not the curse for the Islam people. It is taken as an assignment to see how people handle it, and how they response upon it.
The Quran states that Allah takes the soul at the time of death and those who are in the verdict of dying, Allah come around them and give them the clean cheat letting them to know that it's the time to take a journey with Allah. The living and dying process is taken as the action where there is reaction thereafter. The faith of all Islam people is that the body and spirit unite together. So, Islam views death as the process or resurrection. The prophet also stated that being a Muslim means to challenge each and every circumstance that comes into the life. One should be capable of dealing with adversity and success. Whatever happens in life is already fixed and should take a high spirit and calmness to meet with Allah. The prophet also stated that the path towards the heaven is filled with obstacles and difficulties while the path towards the hell is filled with desire. It's up to the people to choose the path of difficulty or the path of the desire. The path of difficulty is filled with knowledge, sacrifice, and purity while the path of desire is filled with anger, suffocation, and greed.
Molloy, Michael. Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.
DeSpelder, Lynne Ann, and Albert Lee. Strickland. The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.
"Death and Dying." KhutbahBank. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. <http://khutbahbank.org.uk/2009/06/death-and-dying-inspirational-khutbah/>.
This essay Hinduism Vs. Jainism is available for you on Essays24.com! Search Term Papers, College Essay Examples and Free Essays on Essays24.com - full papers database.
Autor: anton • September 12, 2010 • 1,170 Words (5 Pages) • 1,255 Views
Many people believe Hinduism to be a polytheistic religion. This is due to the fact that there is so many gods that they can worship in. But in all actuality it is really a monotheistic religion that spawns off of one god to form many different gods or ideas to worship. The entire religion of Hinduism is based off of Brahman. Brahman is the idea that all reality is a unity. I will explain the concept of Brahman and four others and hopefully make Hinduism easier to comprehend.
Some have viewed Hinduism as a monotheistic religion, because it recognizes only one supreme God: "the pantheistic principle of Brahman, that all reality is a unity. The entire universe is seen as one divine entity, Brahman. Brahman is simultaneously at one with the universe and Brahman transcends it as well." (www.relgioustolerance.org) Breaking Brahman down is essential, let's look at the previous quote. First of all, pantheistic means that: there is a belief in and worship of all gods, which means that Brahman is not a singular concept. The quote then goes on to say that Brahman is throughout the entire universe. This means that Brahman can be found in infinite objects. This is why people may view Hinduism as polytheistic because of their belief in many objects and ideas. The last line says that Brahman not only at one with the universe but also Brahman transcends it. This means that Brahman may be found in on Earth, but he also greater than the concept of Earth. Brahman is on a bigger playing field than that of Earth.
Vishnu, known as the Preserver, preserves new creations and comes down to Earth during critical times in the "cosmic cycles." Vishnu is one of the main Hindu gods, worshiped as the protector and preserver of worlds. Vishnu is considered one of the main gods along with Brahman and Shiva.
Shiva, known as the Destroyer, is at times compassionate, erotic and destructive. One of the principal Hindu deities, Shiva is worshiped as the destroyer and restorer of worlds and in many other forms. Whenever dharma is threatened, Vishnu travels from heaven to earth in one of ten incarnations. Shiva is considered a member of the triad also including Brahma and Vishnu.
Dharma is the law of the Hindus. Dharma is the individual obligation with respect to caste, social custom, civil law, and sacred law that the Hindus follow. Dharma could be referred to as their religion. But Dharma also encompasses many other aspects.
Karma, you hear Karma mentioned all over, don't hate her, its bad karma. Karma is the entire sum of ones good and bad deeds. Karma determines how you will live your next life. Through pure acts, thoughts and devotion, one can be reborn at a higher level. Eventually, a follower of Hinduism can escape samsara and achieve enlightenment. Bad deeds can cause a person to be reborn at a lower level, or even as an animal. The unequal distribution of wealth, prestige, and suffering are thus seen as natural consequences for one's previous acts, both in this life and in previous lives.
Samsara and moksha are the terms used in dealing with the Hinduism concept of afterlife. Samsara is the birth, death, and rebirth cycle. That's why Hindu's want to have good Karma so they can escape this cycle and eventually achieve moksha. Moksha is the escape of samsara and once Hindus achieve moksha they are set free from space, time, and matter. Moksha is what all Hindus want to achieve.
When I saw that we were going to learn about Jainism, I asked myself, "What is that?" To answer my question I found some information at http://www.religioustolerance.org/jainism.htm. Jainism is nature in the purest and truest form. Jainism is as old as nature, which has no beginning or any end. The idea of Jainism is the mission of nature, which is to work for the good of one and all. The idea of Jainism
By: Steve • Research Paper • 919 Words • March 20, 2010 • 4,144 Views
Compare and Contrast: Hinduism and Islam
Religion: Hinduism and Islam
Every society is based on different religion. Different people follow different types of religion according to their birth or by choice. The major religions of the world are Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Judaism. Each religion is similar and different from one another in terms of festivals, practices and beliefs. Apart from Christianity, Hinduism and Islam are the two most widely practiced religions in the world today. They have their own traditions, beliefs and practices. These two religions are similar to some extent and differ in terms of the God they worship, religious text and the place where they offer their prayers.
The major difference between Hinduism and Islam is the God they worship. Hinduism is based on polytheism whereas Islam is based on monotheism. The different forms of gods that Hindus worship are Brahma, Vishnu, Maheshwor, Ganesh, Laxmi, Saraswati, and Durga. Hindus worship these gods because each of these gods represents the creator, preserver, destroyer, first god, goddess of wealth, goddess of knowledge and goddess of victory respectively (WIKIPEDIA). Therefore, by offering prayers to each of these gods individually they believe they will be successful in these areas. On the other hand, Islamic people worship Allah. They believe that Allah is the creator of heaven and the earth. According to them Allah is the supreme being, and there is no one above Allah.
Likewise, both Hindus and Muslims have faith in their religious text. However, Hindus have numerous religious texts whereas Islam has only one. “Hinduism is based on the accumulated treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in different times” (WIKIPEDIA). The different types of religious text that the Hindu religion believes in are The Vedas, The Mahabharat, The Ramayan, The Bhagwad Gita, and The Puranas. The Vedas is believed to be the earliest record of the religious text among the Hindus. Basically a number of these texts are stories about the lives of different gods during different times, but the Hindus go deeper than that and try to grasp the spiritual lesson they are trying to teach. For instance, “The Ramayan,” the story of Ram and Sita, and “The Mahabharat,” the story of the Kauravs and the Pandavs, are epic tales that teach people about the way of life a person should lead.
Conversely, Muslims have only one religious text called the Qur’an. It is considered literal undistorted word of god, and is regarded as God's final revelation to humankind and view it as the closest thing to a part of God in the world. Qur’an also talks about the relationship between God and his creatures and also about wisdom, doctrine, worship, and law (Understanding Islam and the Muslims). Besides that it teaches Muslims about the complete way of living their lives. It teaches discipline to be followed everyday which helps the Muslims to make their life easy. Although Hindus believe in many religious texts at the same time Muslims believe in only one text. Moreover, all of these texts try to teach their followers the same thing about the general way of living and about the general behavior and conduct expected from individuals at different times in their life.
Similarly, Hindus and Muslims differ in terms of the place where they offer their prayers.
Continue for 3 more pages » • Join now to read essay Compare and Contrast: Hinduism and Islam