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Elephantidae Classification Essay

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Elephantidae classification essay

Elephantidae

The systematics of the living subspecies and species, the modern elephants, has undergone several revisions. A list of extant Elephantidae, excluding the extinct species of the two genera, includes: [ 2 ]

Scientific classification of Elephantidae taxa embraces an extensive record of fossil specimens, over millions of years, some of which existed until the end of the last ice age. Some species were extirpated more recently. The discovery of new specimens and proposed cladistics have resulted in systematic revisions of the family and related proboscideans.

Elephantidae are classified informally as the elephant family. or in a paleobiological context as elephants and mammoths. The common name elephant primarily refers to the living taxa, the modern elephants, but may also refer to a variety of extinct species, both within this family and in others (see Elephant (disambiguation) ). Other members of Elephantidae, especially members of Mammuthus. are referred to by the common name mammoth .

Evolutionary history

Evolution of elephants from the ancient Eocene (bottom ) to the modern day (top )

Although the fossil evidence is very certain, by comparing genes, scientists have discovered evidence that Elephantidae and other proboscideans share a distant ancestry with Sirenia (sea cows) and Hyracoidea (hyraxes). [ 3 ] These have been assigned with the demostylians to the clade Paenungulata. In the distant past, members of the hyrax family grew to large sizes, and the common ancestor of all three modern families likely was some kind of amphibious hyracoid. [ citation needed ] One hypothesis is that these animals spent most of their time underwater, using their trunks like snorkels for breathing. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Modern elephants have this ability and are known to swim in that manner for up to six hours and 50 km (31 mi).

In the past, a much wider variety of genera and species were found, including the mammoths and stegodons. [ 6 ] [ 7 ]

References
  1. ^ ab Shoshani, J.; Ferretti, M. P.; Lister, A. M.; Agenbroad, L. D.; Saegusa, H.; Mol, D.; Takahashi, K. (2007). "Relationships within the Elephantinae using hyoid characters". Quaternary International. 169-170: 174. Bibcode :2007QuInt.169..174S. doi :10.1016/j.quaint.2007.02.003.   edit
  2. ^ Shoshani, J. (2005). "Order Proboscidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN  978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC  62265494.  
  3. ^ Ozawa, Tomowo; Seiji Hayashi, Victor M. Mikhelson (1997-04-24), "Phylogenetic Position of Mammoth and Steller's Sea Cow Within Tethytheria Demonstrated by Mitochondrial DNA Sequences", Journal of Molecular Evolution44 (4): 406–413, doi :10.1007/PL00006160. PMID  9089080   Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help ); |accessdate= requires |url= (help )
  4. ^ West, John B. (2001), "Snorkel breathing in the elephant explains the unique anatomy of its pleura", Respiratory Physiology126 (1): 1–8, doi :10.1016/S0034-5687(01)00203-1. PMID  11311306  
  5. ^ West, John B.; Fu, Zhenxing; Gaeth, Ann P.; Short, Roger V. (2003-11-14), "Fetal lung development in the elephant reflects the adaptations required for snorkeling in adult life" (PDF). Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology138 (2-3): 325–333, doi :10.1016/S1569-9048(03)00199-X  
  6. ^ Todd, N. E. (2001). African Elephas recki. time, space and taxonomy (pdf). In: Cavarretta, G. P. Gioia, M. Mussi, and M. R. Palombo. The World of Elephants, Proceedings of the 1st International Congress. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Rome, Italy.
  7. ^ Todd, N. E. (2005). Reanalysis of African Elephas recki: implications for time, space and taxonomy. Quaternary International 126-128:65-72.
External links

Other articles

Proboscidean Mammals

Proboscidea is an order of mammals that includes the elephants and their extinct relatives. Modern-day proboscideans have a long, muscular trunk (although early Proboscideans lacked a long trunk), long tusks, and thick, column-like legs. The proboscideans (also called proboscids) evolved during the Paleocene Epoch, roughly 66.4 to 57.8 million years ago. The African elephant is the largest land animal in the world today.

The word Proboscidea comes from the word proboscis, which means "nose."

Modern-day Proboscidea is represented by one family, the family Elephantidae. There are two living members of the family Elephantidae (elephants), the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus ) and the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana ). Some extinct proboscideans include the woolly mammoth and the mastodon.

Classification of Proboscidea :
    • Family Moeritheridae - pig-sized animals: included Moeritherium
    • Family Deinotheriidae - large, with down-curving tusks: included Deinotherium
  • Suborder Elephantoidea - mammoths, mastodonts, and elephants
    • Family Gomphotheriidae (large and tusked): included Anancus, Ambelodon, Cuvieronius, Gomphotherium, Phiomia. Platybelodon, Stegomastodon)
    • Mammutidae (mastodonts) - Mammut
    • Family Elephantidae (elephants and mammoths) - included Elephas, Loxodonta, and Mammuthus.

A Sampling of Proboscideans:

African Elephant
The African Elephant is the largest land animal.

Asian Elephant
The Asian Elephant is an endangered species.

Elephants
A comparison of the two living species of elephants, the Indian Elephant and the African Elephant.

Mastodon
Mastodons were shaggy, tusked herbivores that lived during the last Ice Age.

Woolly Mammoth
The Woolly Mammoth is an extinct elephant that lived during the Ice Ages.

Elephantidae: Wikis (The Full Wiki)

Elephantidae: Wikis References
  • Elephantidae on Mammal species of the World.
    Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed).
  • London Med. Repos.15. 305.
  • Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd edition, 2005 ISBN 0801882214
  • Jeheskel Shoshani, Pascal Tassy (2005) Advances in proboscidean taxonomy & classification, anatomy & physiology, and ecology & behavior. Quaternary International. 126–128. 5–20. doi. 10.1016/j.quaint.2004.04.011
  • Jeheskel Shoshani. "Taxonomy, Classification, History, and Evolution of Elephants". in: Murray E. Fowler, Susan K. Mikota (eds.): Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of Elephants. ISBN 9780470344484. doi. 10.1002/9780470344484.ch1
Vernacular names

ADW: Elephantidae: CLASSIFICATION

To cite this page: Myers, P. R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2017. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed at http://animaldiversity.org.

Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services.

The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support.

Elephantidae Explained

Elephantidae Explained

Elephantidae is a family of large, herbivorous mammals collectively called elephant s and mammoth s. These are terrestrial large mammal s with a snout modified into a trunk and teeth modified into tusk s. Most genera and species in the family are extinct. Only two genera, Loxodonta (African elephants) and Elephas (Asiatic elephants), are living .

The family was first described by John Edward Gray in 1821, and later assigned to taxonomic ranks within the order Proboscidea. Elephantidae have also been revised by various authors to include or exclude other extinct proboscidean genera.

Classification

See also: List of elephant species and Elephants. The family diverged from a common ancestor of the mastodons of Mammutidae. The classification of proboscideans is unstable and has been frequently revised.

The following cladogram shows the placement of the genus Mammuthus among other proboscideans, based on hyoid characteristics: [1]

The systematics of the living subspecies and species, the modern elephants, has undergone several revisions. A list of extant Elephantidae. excluding the extinct species of the two genera, includes:

Scientific classification of Elephantidae taxa embraces an extensive record of fossil specimens, over millions of years, some of which existed until the end of the last ice age. Some species were extirpated more recently. The discovery of new specimens and proposed cladistics have resulted in systematic revisions of the family and related proboscideans.

Elephantids are classified informally as the elephant family. or in a paleobiological context as elephants and mammoths. The common name elephant primarily refers to the living taxa, the modern elephants, but may also refer to a variety of extinct species, both within this family and in others (see Elephant (disambiguation) ). Other members of Elephantidae, especially members of Mammuthus. are referred to by the common name mammoth .

Evolutionary history

Although the fossil evidence is very certain, by comparing genes, scientists have discovered evidence that elephantids and other proboscideans share a distant ancestry with Sirenia (sea cows) and Hyracoidea (hyraxes). These have been assigned with the demostylia ns to the clade Paenungulata. In the distant past, members of the various hyrax families grew to large sizes, and the common ancestor of all three modern families is thought to have been some kind of amphibious hyracoid. One hypothesis is that these animals spent most of their time underwater, using their trunks like snorkels for breathing. Modern elephants have this ability and are known to swim in that manner for up to six hours and 50km (30miles).

In the past, a much wider variety of genera and species were found, including the mammoth s and stegodon s. [2] [3]

References
  1. Shoshani. J. Ferretti. M. P. Lister. A. M. Agenbroad. L. D. Saegusa. H. Mol. D. Takahashi. K. Relationships within the Elephantinae using hyoid characters. 10.1016/j.quaint.2007.02.003. Quaternary International. 169-170. 174. 2007. 2007QuInt.169..174S.
  2. Todd, N. E. (2001). African Elephas recki. time, space and taxonomy (pdf). In: Cavarretta, G. P. Gioia, M. Mussi, and M. R. Palombo. The World of Elephants, Proceedings of the 1st International Congress. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Rome, Italy.
  3. Todd, N. E. (2005). Reanalysis of African Elephas recki: implications for time, space and taxonomy. Quaternary International 126-128:65-72.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Elephantidae ".

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