From the father of the recording console comes the 5060 Centerpiece: the Class-A analog heart of your 21st-century studio. Sized for your desktop, the 5060 delivers the tonality and center section features of Rupert’s flagship 5088 console at your fingertips, cementing outboard together with serious custom transformers, flexible monitoring, DAW transport controls, and the raw power of a Rupert Neve-designed 24×2 mix-buss.Define Your Workflow
With a modular, hybrid analogue/digital mix system built around the 5060, you can outfit your studio with exactly what you need – and nothing that you don’t (see configurations guide here ). Utilizing modern DAW control technologies, the 5060 seamlessly integrates stem outputs from the DAW with the rest of your control room, sums the final mix, and provides 2-track outputs, source selection, and speaker feed outputs from the monitor section.
Used in conjunction with 5059 mixers and Portico modules, the 5060 forms the core of a scalable analogue system. In this arrangement, the 5059s provide individual channel control, aux routing, and expandable channel counts, the Portico modules provide preamplification, EQ and dynamics, and the 5060 unites it all. The 5060 brings your dreams of a seamless hybrid workflow to reality.
“The 5060 is the centerpiece of my new mix suite, which uses a combination of plug-ins and select outboard gear for easy recall. The sound and ergonomics make me happy as an analogue guy, which allows me to leave the main room open for tracking sessions while I’m mixing now.”Craig Schumacher (Neko Case, KT Tunstall) Define Your Tone
With custom transformers, a class-A mix buss and variable Silk, the 5060 can provide a wide range of tonal flavors. Drive the mix buss hard and crank the Texture knob for a rich, saturated, vintage vibe – or disengage Silk entirely for clear, wide-open sonic beauty.
Silk reduces the negative feedback on the output transformer, adding harmonic content as the texture is increased. Silk red mode accentuates the saturation in the high-mids and highs, while silk blue mode features more saturation in the lows and low mids.
With Silk engaged, the distortion characteristic and harmonic content of the unit are very reminiscent of many of Rupert’s class-A vintage designs. These controls add an unparalleled range of tonal options to the 5060 and should be explored creatively with a variety of different sources for best effect.
Additionally, by using 5059 Satellite Mixers to feed the 5060, you can further control the tone by using different Silk & Texture settings on the dual stereo outputs,and by creating parallel processing on the stems using the insert sends into processors, and then into stereo inputs 9-24.
“Our 5060 is really the heart of the studio. Smooth knobs, faders and buttons. Flawless monitor control. Nothing is missing in it. The Centerpiece is the perfect bridge between digital and analog here at Stamha.”Álvaro R. - Stamha Mastering The New Analogue Standard
While digital technologies come and go, the modular, class-A analog designs Rupert created decades ago have been proven to stand the test of time. Instead of merely cloning these “classics”, Rupert’s team of engineers have crafted new designs – built on the same key principles – that take sonic performance, flexibility and ergonomics to new heights.
These designs embody the high voltage, class-A, discrete and transformer coupled architectures found in the 5088 console, which represent a culmination of Rupert’s vast analogue circuitry knowledge.
With the 5060 Centerpiece, the primary aim is to deliver the extraordinary quality of the 5088 in a compact, modular framework. With an abundance of interconnectivity, exceptional fidelity, and the tonal versatility of Silk, the 5060 is the ideal core of the sound-conscious modern studio.
New Class-A Topologies
The new +/- 24V class-A topologies in the 5060 are the key to a more detailed, sweeter and spacious mix buss. With zero crossover distortion and unmatched purity, the 5060 delivers the sound of the 5088 to your desktop. To get more dynamic harmonic content out of the mix buss, you can push the levels on the input channels into the mix buss to find the “sweet spot”. When pushing the mix buss levels, you may need to lower the master fader to avoid overloading your 2-track input.Custom Transformers
Beyond providing ground-loop free interfacing, Rupert’s custom transformers in the 5060 are responsible for its larger than life sound. To accentuate the classic tone from the output transformers, you can use the Silk / Texture controls to dial in the desired amount of “color” depending on what each mix needs.Stereo Input Channels 1-8
A professional grade 100mm fader determines the level of stereo input channels 1-8. Channels 1-8 can be either stereo or center-panned mono, and have both mute switches and inserts. The insert send of channels 1-2, and 3-4 has optional talkback assignment for use when feeding channels 1-8 through the 5060 to multichannel queue systems. The insert sends on channels 1-8 may also be used as a pre-fader send to a multi-track recorder.Stereo Inputs Channels 9-24
Eight active stereo inputs with rotary faders for stem and aux inputs.Stereo Buss Master
A 100mm stereo fader provides level control for the master stereo buss, outputting to both the stereo buss monitor signal and the stereo master output. For adding compression and EQ to the mix buss, there is also a transformer coupled insert engaged by the Insert switch.Texture & Silk Red / Blue
Continuously variable Texture control for Silk Red and Blue modes allows you to fine tune the harmonic ratio and tonality of both stereo outputs when extra “color” is desired. Both Silk modes reduce the negative feedback on the output transformer, adding harmonic content as the texture is increased. Silk red mode accentuates the saturation in the high-mids and highs, while silk blue mode features more saturation in the lows and low mids.
The included talkback mic is activated by depressing the Talkback switch. The Talkback has level control, a direct out, and assignment to insert sends 1-2 & 3-4. When the talkback switch is depressed, the speaker output levels are lowered according to the setting of the Dim control. A talkback remote may also be plugged into the ¼” talkback remote input on the back of the 5060.Transport Controls
Standard transport functions in DAWs including play, stop, record, fast-forward, rewind, loop, shuttle / jog and marker drop are controlled through Midi or USB interconnection. USB mode is compatible with Mac OS X 10.3 and up, and Windows 7 & 8.Monitor Source Selection
Selects the monitor source from between the stereo buss and three external monitor inputs.Monitor Select
Selects which speaker output is active. By holding the Mon 3 button, the Mon 3 outs will “latch” on, allowing both Mon 1 & 2 for use with subwoofers or speakers in the cutting room.Headphone Amplifier
A reference grade headphone amplifier with headphone level control. The headphone signal follows the selection of the monitor select.Monitor Level
A Precision 21 step attenuator provides highly accurate left/right stereo tracking, perfect repeatability, and determines the level of the monitor output.
VU Meters Display the RMS signal level of the selected monitor source, and the peak indicator illuminates red when the peak threshold has been exceeded.
Engaged when either the Dim or Talkback switch is depressed, Dim reduces the volume of monitor between -6dB and -30dB.
Mix Inputs 1-24: 2 x DB-25
Mix Channel Inserts Send/Return1-8: 1 x DB-25
Mix Send to External Monitor:
Monitor Outputs (Mon 3 latching): 6 x XLR
Talkback Output: 1 x TRS
Talkback Remote: 1 x TS
Stereo Mix Insert/Return L-R: 4 x TRS
Stereo Mix Output:2 x XLR
Midi In / Out: 2 x Midi
Computer Connection: USB
18.5" wide x 12.5" deep x 5.75" high in the back (3.5" in the front)Stereo Outputs
Channels 1-8 Max input level
Fader at 0: 25.4 dBu
Fader at +10: 15.2 dBu
Channels 9-24 Max input level
trim at 0: 25.4 dBu
Any combination of inputs: 25.4 dBu
Channels 1-8, fader at unity, THD+N BW
+20 dBu, 20 Hz: 0.023%
+20 dBu, 2 kHz: 0.0032%
+20 dBu, 20 kHz: 0.017%
BW 22 Hz – 22 kHz
Channels 1-24: Better than -90 dBV
Channels 9-24: Better than -100 dBV
+ 10 dbu, 10 kH, L/R: -49 dB
Channel to channel
CMRR at 1K input to channel 1, 0 dBu fader at unity: -70 dBu
10 Hz to 120 kHz: +/- 0.25 dB
185 kHz: -3 dB
+4 dBu, CCIF/DFD: 0.0008%Silk (Texture control at maximum)
+20 dBu in, 20 Hz: Better than 5%
+20 dBu in, 200 Hz: Better than 0.2%
0 dBu in, 20 kHz – 2.3 dBu
+20 dBu in, 20 Hz –Better than 5%
+20 dBu in, 200 Hz – Better than 0.15%
0 dBu in, 30 Hz: -1 dBu
Trigger Threshold: +22 dBuMonitor Outputs
Max Output level 1 kHz: +25 dBu
+20 dBu, 20 Hz: 0.023%
+20 dBu, 2 kHz: 0.0032%
+20 dBu, 20 kHz: 0.017%
1-24: Better than -90 dBV
9-24: Better than -100 dBV
Max output level: Better than +20 dBu, unloaded
2 kHz into 68 ohms, 16 dBu output: Better than 0.02%
Noise (22 Hz – 22 kHz): Better than -85 dBV
Minimum Load: 16 ohms recommended (8 absolute min)
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Last updated at 0:21, 19 Feb 2017 Uploaded at 2:16, 1 Jan 2016
Mod adds over 30 outfits to the game:
It combines my Armour Collection, my Utility Jumpsuits and the Sleeveless Outfits.
All outfits have both male and female version.
• They can be crafted at the Armoursmith Workbench.
Depending on the faction and style, they can be crafted under CASUAL OUTFITS, MILITARY OUTFITS, ARMOR,
HEADGEAR, INSTITUTE OUTFITS or VAULT OUTFITS
• You can upgrade most of them with Ballistic Weave or Lining Mods at the Armour Workbench.
• They have armour rating depending on whether they look buff, or just casual armour.
Usually it's something like 5 to 20 DT and 5-10 energy and rad res.
• The Stealthy Jumpsuit (dark submarine uniform) and Railroad Utility Jumpsuits have the Chameleon legendary effect, they require Stealthboys for crafting. Most others have some sort of SPECIAL buff.
• Some can have armour pieces worn over them, some clip too badly.
• The "synth" uniform comes in four flavours, BY DEFAULT IT IS FOR MINUTEMEN. Choose in the installer if you want BoS, Railroad or Institute instead.
If you want these to replace the vanilla stuff you need to look at my retextures page where I uploaded non-standalones.
The hairstyle is called Anchorage. I unlocked it after finding two other hair magazines. The Waste Maiden + Anchorage is my own custom mod.
Q: MAKE A PATCH FOR MOD X!?!?!?1+1+1
A: No, I don't either use mod X or don't know how to setup this stuff to work with them, working in FO4Edit is very hard for me.
I made this for myself, it will be up to the community to add patches to the files they use.
Q: Y U NO SKIMPY ARMOUR !!?!?!? ლ(ಠ益ಠლ)
A: I'll cut you I swear m8
Q: It's just stupid recolours of vanilla stuff!!! THERE'S NOTHING NEW HERE!!!!111oneone
A: Please, do direct me to YOUR mod page that has dozens of new models and textures made from scratch that you offer to people for free.
I'd love to see them!
Q: They're ugly.
A: Something about your mum here.
Q: I can't upgrade it!
A: Ballistic Weave comes from working with the Railroad.
Q: Bodyslide makes them weirdy shape!?
A: That's what you get with vanilla meshes that have like 5 polygons. CBBE team did their best.
This has nothing to do with me.
Q: How 2 ur char!?
A: Save file here .
- Marjin for the Black Jumpsuit and allowing me to use it in this mod
- RustyXXL for help with conversions, I used Synth and Submariner armour from his Quick and Dirty CBBE BodySlide Conversions.
Go check out his CBBE work!
- Wenderer for FOMOD Creation Tool
- Ousnius for infinite patience with me as I noobed my way through the CBBE compatibility and Bodyslide
- jet4571 for the Field Scribe Backpack mod from which I used the tiny backpack from
Darren for being awesome and making me tons of teddy bear things <3
Wanna talk mods? Join my Discord for a support hot line and free hugs!
The KH24 is a top quality unicycle designed for muni riders preferring the nimble feel of a 24x3” wheel geometry. An abundant use of one-piece forged components ensures high strength and durability. Ideal for smaller riders and aggressive technical riding.Highlights include
Please Note: KH unicycles may have slightly different component specs in different countries. We recommend checking with your local KH supplier to confirm before purchase.
This unicycle features a Fusion One saddle, a fundamentally new approach to unicycle saddle design. Correct setup is important! We recommend adding a T-bar handle for most riders (not included). Click here for more information on the saddle and click here for an important setup guide .
14g Stainless Steel w/ Brass Nipples. Spoke length: 231mm (Spirit Hub) / 225mm (KH-Schlumpf)
Minimum leg inseam length (ground to crotch, wearing shoes) for KH24: 70 cm
Note: minimum leg length may be reduced by 25+ mm by selecting different components, such as a slimmer saddle model and non-adjustable seatpost (to reduce saddle height), and shorter cranks (to raise the lowest point of the crank rotation). Advanced users may also shorten the frame seatpost tube by up to 25 mm. Note that frame modifications void the KH warranty.
Consider these optional component choices to customize your unicycle for the specific type of riding you want to do.
Kris Holm Unicycles prides itself on producing equipment that lasts through years of long rides with minimal maintenance or repairs. Should you have any concerns about the quality of your KHU product please refer to our Warranty Policy or contact us .
Unicycle Assembly Instructions pdf (359 KB)
Assembly instructions for all KH unicycles including the Unicycle Assembly Instructions.
Spirit Cranks Disc Brake Instructions pdf (179 KB)
Installation instructions for External Disc Brake (EDB) systems on 2012+ KH unicycles including the Spirit Cranks Disc Brake Instructions.
Fusion One Comfort Guide pdf (354 KB)
The Fusion One is a performance saddle. Correct setup is very important for comfort! This guide provides tips & suggested handle setups. including the .
A bi-annual grant supporting riders seeking non-competitive mountain unicycling adventures in remote places around the world.
Read Kris Holm's book, The Essential Guide to Mountain and Trials Unicycling, to find out more about the diverse sport of unicycling. Available now through Gradient Press.
1% FOR THE PLANET
Kris Holm Unicycles is proud to have been the first Canadian company to commit 1% of sales to environmental conservation through One Percent For The Planet.
Soviet cruise missile designers started developing technology after 1945, from much the same baseline as Western designers, and with similar imperatives. These were to provide bombers with standoff weapons allowing them to launch from outside the defensive coverage of an opponent. By the mid 1950s Soviet imperatives and design strategies began to diverge strongly from their NATO opponents, resulting in a great many designs which had and still have no Western equivalents.
A major factor in the divergence between Soviet and Western designs was the Soviet Voenno-Moskiy Flot (Navy) which in the absence of proper aircraft carriers capable of challenging the US Navy and Royal Navy, invested increasingly in large, fast and highly lethal Anti-Shipping Cruise Missiles (ASCM) as primary weapon for sea control and maritime interdiction. The result of this divergent evolution were parallel missile families, involving air launched and ship/sub launched missiles, many of which were built for strategic or tactical nuclear applications, with concurrently manufactured conventionally armed ASCM variants.
The threat of large supersonic cruise missiles drove the development of many Western air defence weapon designs, especially fighters and Surface to Air Missile systems, which might have been very different had it not been for the need to reliably intercept these very fast weapons.
The first Soviet cruise missile to enter limited production was the air launched KS-1 Kometa or AS-1 Kennel, which was essentially a derivative of the MiG-15 Fagot airframe, built as an anti-shipping weapon. Development was initiated in 1947 resulting the first missiles entering service during the Korean War period, carried by the Tu-4 Bull, a reverse engineered Boeing B-29. The Tu-4KS variant was equipped with the K-1M X-band radar and provided beam riding midcourse guidance for the Kometa ASCM. Once the Kometa was near enough to the target, guidance switched to the K-2 semi-active homing seeker in the nose of the missile, relying on illumination from the K-1M radar.
The KS-1 Kometa / AS-1 Kennel was the first Soviet cruise missile to be manufactured in large numbers. It was deployed initially on the Tu-4KS Bull, a reverse engineered Boeing B-29, and then rehosted on the Tu-16KS Badger B (RuMoD).
The Kometa was integrated on the early Tu-16KS Badger B bomber, and later exported to Badger users including Indonesia. A land attack variant, designated by NATO as the SSC-2A Salish, and the coastal defence SSC-2B Samlet, later emerged.
The development of the KS-1 series was paralleled by the development of the V-MF’s P-1 / KSShCh or SS-N-1 Scrubber, which in turn led to the first two significant Soviet naval ASCMs, the NPO Mashinostroyeniya P-5/P-6/P-35 or SS-N-3 Shaddock/Sepal series, and the P-15/21 Termit or SS-N-2 Styx series.
The P-1 / SS-N-1 entered service in 1957 and was deployed in rail launcher equipped hangars, launched by solid rocket booster and using a turbojet sustainer engine. A number of larger Soviet destroyers and cruisers were equipped with the weapon. It was rapidly replaced by the much more effective Shaddock, entering service in 1957, and modeled largely on the US Navy’s Regulus II supersonic cruise missile.
The Shaddock and Styx dominated Soviet warship armaments through most of the 1960s. The heavyweight long range Shaddock with a complex guidance system armed submarines and major capital ships, while the short range Styx armed fast missile boats, corvettes, frigates andsome destroyers, with a later adaptation for the 4K51 Rubezh coastal missile battery system. The Chinese reverse engineered the Styx to produce the Silkworm family of ASCMs, and the unique air launched CAS-1 Kraken carried by the H-6D Badger.
The Shaddock and Styx shared some basic design features. Both used active radar terminal seekers, large container-like launchers with internal rails, and solid rocket boosters used for launch and then jettisoned. Otherwise they were very different designs.
The Styx family of missiles did not evolve significantly in Russia, but was reverse engineered by China and derivatives like the KD-63 remain in production in 2009.
The Shaddock/Sepal family of missiles evolved and derivatives remained in production at the end of the Cold War. Numerous other supersonic and subsonic anti-ship cruise missiles appeared between the 1960s and the fall of the Soviet Union, most of which were conceptually modelled on the air breathing Shaddock, or rocket propelled Styx, even though there were unique designs.
Soviet VVS and AV-MF planners exploited the liquid propellant propulsion technology of the Styx, resulting in the KSR-2 / AS-5 Kelt, a transonic cruise missile comparable to the US ground launched Martin Matador series. Seeking better survivability the same style of engine was used to develop the large and fast Kh-22 Burya / SA-4 Kitchen, which remains in use on the Backfire today as a legacy weapon. To replace the Kelt, the KSR-5 / AS-6 Kingfish, a scaled down Kitchen, was deployed to arm the Badger fleet. It was retired at the end of the Cold War.
While the concept of a large supersonic cruise missile remains a centrepiece of Russian cruise missile technology today, with the 3M82 / Kh-41 Moskit / SS-N-22 Sunburn and P-800 / 3M55 / Kh-61 Yakhont / Brahmos / SS-N-26 Stallion missiles, the Russians launched a third class of cruise missile, modelled on the US RGM-109 Tomahawk series, during the late 1960s.
The Raduga Kh-55 / AS-15 Kent and its offspring are the most prominent types, although the parallel family of Novator missiles, exemplified by the widely exported 3M54 / 3M14 / SS-N-27 Sizzler are much better known in the West.
Almost two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia remains a major player in the global market for cruise missile class weapons, and a major source of advanced cruise missile technology for China's increasingly aggressive industry.
The West has been much less active in developing cruise missiles over this period, and at this time has no equivalents to the large supersonic Russian missiles.
The division between Air Launched and Surface/Subsurface Launched Cruise Missiles is almost arbitrary. As technology has evolved, variants of missiles initially developed in either category have migrated across launch platforms. Variants of the Styx, Sunburn, Stallion and Sizzler are now available in configurations compatible with aircraft, surface ships, submarines and coastal missile batteries. No less importantly the advent of satellite aided inertial guidance of high accuracy and its migration into anti-shipping missiles to improve effectiveness in littorals has seen a progressive drift away from specialised categories. Many missiles now in production are available in anti-ship, land attack or dual role variants.
Air Launched Cruise Missiles
Kh-22 Burya / AS-4 Kitchen
Kh-22 / AS-4 Kitchen on the centreline semi-conformal station of a Backfire [More images. ] (US DoD).
The mighty Kh-22 (AS-4 Kitchen) was the weapon which stimulated the development of the SPY-1 Aegis system. Designed during the 1960s for dual role use as a nuclear armed standoff weapon, and as an anti-shipping missile with either radar or anti-radiation seekers, the Kh-22 remains in service as the primary armament of the RuAF's residual fleet of Tu-22M3 Backfires. While the Tu-95K-22 Bear G was equipped to carry up to three Kh-22s, its progressive retirement has limited use to the Backfire.
Soviet Long Range Aviation (DA-VVS) followed a very different path to the V-MF in pursuing second generation cruise missiles. The Kangaroo proved to be troublesome and clearly would have difficulty penetrating NATO defences, the DA-VVS coveted a missile similar to the British Avro Blue Steel which was being developed for the V-bombers.
Raduga developed the Kh-22 Burya or AS-4 Kitchen to meet this need. The Kitchen was a bigger, faster and longer ranging equivalent to the Blue Steel, initially armed with a 1 Megatonne nuclear warhead and equipped with inertial guidance. The AV-MF instantly took an interest in the Kh-22 and ASCM variants with active radar and anti-radiation seekers eventually emerged.
The Kh-22 is a formidable weapon. Powered by an Isayev R-201-300 / S5.44 liquid rocket delivering 83 kN full thrust and 5.9 kN cruise thrust, it is claimed to exceed 4.6 Mach in cruise at 80,000 ft AGL. Around 3 tonnes of TG02 fuel and AK-20K oxidiser are carried providing a cited range between 145 NMI (270 km) and 300 NMI (550 km), subject to variant, profile and launch speed/altitude. The engine uses gas generator driven turbopumps and a central power generator to power the onboard avionics and hydraulics.
The structure was the first to use OT-4-1 and SM-5 titanium alloys extensively. Not unlike Lockheed with the A-11/YF-12A, Raduga experienced numerous problems with materials and the high airframe temperature during Mach 3+ cruise.
While the Kh-22 was intended to replace the Kangaroo, it was first deployed in the Tu-22 Blinder which used the PN or Down Beat acquisition radar to target the missile.
By the early 1970s the ineffective Blinder was being replaced by the more capable Tu-22M2 Backfire B, capable of carrying up to three Kh-22s, but usually armed with one on the centerline BD-45 adaptor. The final 1980s Tu-22M3 Backfire C variant had the performance to carry three Kh-22s to 2,500 nautical miles, with underwing rounds on BD-45K adaptors – this weapon system remains in Russian service today. It also armed the primary strike regiments of the AV-MF during the last decade of the Cold War.
The basic Kh-22PG anti-shipping variant of the missile used a PG active radar seeker, the improved Kh-22N the PMG seeker. The Kh-22P anti-radiation variant, with a PSN or PGP-K seeker, required the Kurs N/NM RHAW receiver. The Kh-22M introduced an improved variant of the engine.
The integration of the Kh-22 on the Tu-95K-20 Bear C proved to be protracted and troublesome, but eventually resulted in upgrades running through the 1980s to convert all Bear B/C bombers into the Tu-22K-22 Bear G equipped to carry the improved PNA Down Beat radar and up to three Kh-22s, for use as a nuclear armed defence suppression or maritime strike system.
Seven variants have been reported to date, and a mid life upgrade for the APK-22 guidance package has also been recently reported. Nuclear armed variants included a TERCOM system to supplement the inertial unit.
If China ever proceeds with the much speculated upon Backfire purchase, the Kh-22 is likely to be supplied as the basic weapon for the aircraft. The Backfire carries up to three rounds, although typical payloads are one or two, on BD-45K/F adaptors.
Tu-16K-10-26 Badger C armed with a single KSR-5 Kingfish (US DoD).
Tu-16K-11/K-11-16/K-16-26 Badger G with KSR-5 Kingfish in the distinctive white AV-MF camouflage paint (US DoD).
A pair of AV-MF Tu-16K-11-26P Badger G maritime defence suppression aircraft equipped with the Ritsa RHAW and KSR-5PM anti-radiation missiles. Note the inverted T shaped interferometer array above the glazed bombardier station, and the distinctive white AV-MF camouflage paint. This image is unusual as it shows the maximum loadout of two rounds, typically not carried due to range limitations (RuMoD).
AV-MF Tu-16K-16-26 Badger G maritime strike aircraft with pair of KSR-5 rounds (RuMoD).
Raduga Kh-55SM Kent with conformal fuel tanks.
China is known to have illegally acquired, in a joint operation with Iran, several examples of the Kh-55SM Kent cruise missile from storage in the Ukraine, including some ground equipment. The cost of the investment suggests an interest in partial or complete reverse engineering of this missile.
The Kh-55 family of cruise missiles owes its origins to a series of internal studies at the Raduga OKB during the early 1970s. Raduga were unsuccessful initially in convincing the Soviet leadership of the value of their concept, but this changed as public knowledge of the US AGM-86 Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) program became better known in the Soviet Union.
Russian sources claim that Raduga's early work on these weapons was opposed by many Russian experts who were deeply sceptical of the viability of such a complex new weapon.
The Kh-55 family of weapons most closely resemble the early US BGM-109 Tomahawk in concept, using a cylindrical fuselage with pop out planar wings, unfolding tail control surfaces, and a ventral turbofan engine, with guidance provided by a TERrain COntour Matching (TERCOM) aided inertial navigation system.
The most visible difference between the Tomahawk and Kh-55 families of missiles is the engine installation. The Tomahawk's Williams F107-WR100 engine is embedded in the tail and uses a ventral inlet duct and tailcone exhaust. The Kh-55's Omsk AMKB TVD-50 two spool turbofan is mounted in a nacelle which is stowed in the aft fuselage and deploys via a ventral door on a pylon after launch.
The TVD-50 is a critical piece of technology in the Kh-55 as it is a compact and fuel efficient turbofan in the thrust and size class required to power cruise missiles, standoff missiles and UAVs. The cited thrust rating is 400 to 500 kp (880 to 1,000 lbf), with a dry mass of 95 kg (210 lb), a Specific Fuel Consumption of 0.65, a length of 0.85 m (33.5 in) and diameter of 0.33 m (13 in).
The Tomahawk uses a four surface tail control assembly with anhedral on the stabilators, whereas the Kh-55 uses only three larger surfaces, with more pronounced anhedral, a configuration since adopted in the new Block IV RGM/UGM-109E Tomahawk Land Attack Missile. The largely symmetrical aft fuselage of the Tomahawk differs from the more pronounced sculpting of the Kh-55 aft fuselage.
The cylindrical fuselage configuration is essentially the same for both designs. The Tomahawk has a 21 in diameter, the Kh-55 a 20.5 in diameter, the Tomahawk weighed 2,700 lb at launch, the Kh-55 2,870 lb. The later blocks of the Tomahawk have a chinned 'Beluga' nose to reduce radar signature, the Kh-55 retains an ogival/spherical nose.
The baseline guidance package on both missiles is designed around a digital computer running Kalman filter and TERCOM software, with an onboard memory storing a digital map, coupled to a radar altimeter for terrain profiling and a low drift inertial unit. Tomahawks later acquired an optical Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator and GPS - the Soviet had DSMAC technology but it has never been disclosed whether this was added to the Kh-55 series. The cited designation for the Kh-55 guidance package is the Sprut and BSU-55.
Like the Tomahawk, the Kh-55 spawned a range of derivatives, unlike the Tomahawk the Kh-55 became the dominant air launched weapon.
The first generation of Kh-55s appeared in three configurations, entering service in 1984. The 'Izdeliye 120' Kh-55 / AS-15A was air launched from the Tu-95MS using a MKU-6-5 rotary launcher and external pylons.
The air launched Kh-55 was followed by the improved 'Izdeliye 124' Kh-55OK, which was supplanted in production by the most capable 'Izdeliye 125' Kh-55SM / AS-15B subtype in 1987.
The aim of the Kh-55SM design was to further extend the striking range of the basic missile, cited at 1,350 NMI (2,500 km). This was achieved by adding a pair of conformal fuselage fuel tanks, which increased launch weight to 3,750 lb (1,700 kg), but increased cruise range to 1,620 NMI (3,000 km) with a 200 kT warhead fitted.
A conventional derivative of the Kh-55, designated the Kh-555, was recently announced. A lightweight shorter ranging derivative weapon, the Kh-65, has been actively marketed since the 1990s.
For all intents and purposes, the late model Kh-55SM is a heavier and longer ranging equivalent to the BGM-109B Tomahawk, with performance closest to the AGM-86B ALCM.
Tu-160 Blackjack launching a Kh-55SM from its aft bay (Russian MoD).
Stowed Kh-55 / RKV-500A cruise missile.
Stowed Kh-55SM / RKV-500B cruise missile. Note the conformal fuel tanks.
P-15 / SS-N-2C Styx with wings folded (naval variant).
When the Raduga bureau designed the P-15/4K-40 Termit (SS-N-2 Styx) anti-ship missile during the late 1950s, little could they have imagined that it would remain in production a half century later. The weapon's first kill was the Israeli warship Eilat in 1967.
The P-15 / SS-N-2 Styx was a far simpler and very different weapon to the larger P-5/P-6 / SS-N-3 Shaddock, and ended up being produced in many different Soviet variants. The Styx was powered by an Isayev P-15 liquid rocket rated at 1.213-0.554 tonnes thrust, using toxic AK-20K/TG-02 propellant based on the Luftwaffe’s Wasserfall fuel. This highly toxic and corrosive fuel presents serious handling problems in fuelling up and defuelling the missile, the propellant mix comprising AK-20K/F oxidiser (80% nitric acid, 20% N2 O4 with fluorine or iodine additives) and TG02 fuel (50% xylidine and 50% triethylamine).
The Styx is armed with a 4G15 1,100 lb (513 kg) shaped charge warhead and mostly fitted with a conically scanning active radar seeker. The 2 – 2.5 tonne launch weight Styx was subsonic, with a range of up to 50 nautical miles, flying a shallow climb/dive profile at 0.9 Mach, and pre-programmed midcourse cruise altitudes of 25, 50 and 250 metres. Midcourse guidance used an inertial autopilot, with two terminal seekers available, The P-15TG infrared homing seeker was supplanted in production P-27 / SS-N-2D missiles by the Snegir M seeker, and the widely used active radar seeker was used for all weather operations.
The P-15 Styx was rapidly deployed on Osa and Komar class fast missile boats, later replaced by improved P-15M rounds. Later P-15U and P-27 Styx variants were carried by Tarantul Corvettes, Kashin destroyers, and Koni class frigates.
The 4K51 Rubezh / SSC-3 coastal defence system was also very widely exported. The 3P51 TELAR is based on the MAZ-543 8 x 8 chassis, and uses a trainable elevating two round launcher with a unique KT-161 launch tube design. Two radar configurations exist. Export systems are typically equipped with the same Square Tie search and fire control radar as fitted to corvettes and fast missile boats. Late models employed the 3Ts25E Garpun E targeting system, which combines an X-band radar component with a passive targeting system which operates between 0.8 and 12 GHz against pulsed and CW emitters, with an accuracy of 0.5 - 1.5°.
China reverse engineered the Styx as the Silkworm, and derivatives of this weapon remain currently in production.
While the Styx is widely regarded to be obsolete today, and too large and slow to penetrate modern defences on warships, the missile remains strategically important, due to its lethality and wide deployment. Used against transports, tankers, amphibious ships and other targets without defensive systems, the missile is highly lethal. Not only does it carry a large warhead, but the unburned hypergolic fuel produces considerable incendiary effect.
Tu-95RTs Bear D targeting platform. Note the large radome for the bomb bay mounted MTsRS-1 Uspehkh / Big Bulge surface search and ASCM targeting radar, and the ESM antennas for passive ASCM targeting on the aft fuselage (US DoD).
4K44B Redut / 4K44 Utyos / SSC-1B Sepal Coastal Defence Systems
The Redut was a mobile coastal defence system using an SPU-35B or SPU-35V TEL carrying a single 3M44/P-35B missile round. A mobile 4R45 Skala targeting radar was employed, with three TELs per battery. The system was introduced during the 1960s.
The system was designed to accept targeting inputs from the Tu-95RTs Bear D, Ka-25Ts Hormone helicopters, and Tu-16 Badger variants with compatible downlinks. At the end of the Cold War the four Soviet V-MF fleets deployed a total of 19 battalions, each with 15 to 18 TELs. The TEL was based on the large ZiL-135K/BAZ-135MB 8 x 8 vehicle.
The 4K44 Utyos was a static coastal battery variant of the same system, with relocatable SM-70 two round launchers, and P-35V missiles. It achieved IOC in 1973.
The Sepal variants were deployed especially around the Black Sea, with detachments also pre-positioned in Bulgaria, and the system was exported to Syria, according to Russian sources.
SPU-35B / SSC-1 Sepal TEL launching (via Russian Internet).
A pair of SPU-35B / SSC-1 Sepal TELs launching (via Russian Internet).
SPU-35B / SSC-1 Sepal TEL for and aft views (via Russian Internet).
SPU-35B / SSC-1 Sepal TEL launch tube (via Russian Internet) .
The 4K44 Utyos was a static coastal missile battery system designed around the P-35 / SS-N-3 Shaddock ASCM. The launcher design is different to the SPU-35 series TELs (Black Sea Fleet website).
P-70 / 4K66 Ametist / SS-N-7 Starbright
Development of the P-70 / 4K66 Ametist or SS-N-7 Starbright, was initiated in 1959, with the intent of producing a missile capable of launch from a submerged SSGN, to avoid the vulnerabilities observed with the Echo I/II submarines armed the P-5/P-6/P-35 / SS-N-3 Shaddock family of missiles.
The design employed new technology in the 293P solid propellant sustainer burning NMF-2 or LTS-2KM propellant, with a large four element solid rocket booster pack used for launch. The missile could be launched from a depth of 30 to 40 metres, from a slanted launch tube which was flooded before the missile was fired. The boosters had separate nozzles for underwater propulsion, and atmospheric boost.
A 4G66 shaped charge warhead was used, and an active radar or according to some US sources, an anti-radiation terminal seeker. In operation the Project 670 / Skat / Charlie I class SSGN, of which a dozen were built, would either ambush or stalk its quarry, launching the fire-and-forget Ametist from 40 nautical miles, this taking up to three minutes for a complete salvo.
The P-70 / 4K66 Ametist missile would cruise at 200 ft AMSL subsonic, diving for impact. A nuclear warhead was optional. The principal limitation of the missile was its limited range, exposing the launching SSGN to CVBG defensive SSN patrols and ASW aircraft.
The Charlie I class boats were decommissioned and scrapped during the early 1990s.P-120 / 4K85 Malakhit / SS-N-9 Siren
P-120 Malakhit / SS-N-9 Siren. Note the ventral IR seeker (Black Sea Fleet website).
The P-120 / 4K85 Malakhit was developed as a larger and longer ranging sibling to the P-70, with the intention of arming the Papa class SSGN, which never entered series production, with the six Project 670M Skat M / Charlie II SSGNs taking its place as the principal delivery system.
P-120 / 4K85 Malakhit was also deployed on the Nanuchka and Tarantul corvettes during the early 1970s, replacing the Styx. The P-120 followed the concept of the P-70, but used a much better active radar seeker and could hit targets at 80 nautical miles. Cruise altitude was, like the P-70, set at
Russian sources claim that a Drofa adjunct infrared seeker was employed to improve countermeasures resistance during terminal homing, the seeker was installed in a ventral pod.
The Charlie II class boats were decommissioned and scrapped during the early 1990s. The weapon remains deployed on smaller surface combatants. A P-120 was apparently fired successfully at a Georgian naval vessel in 2008.P-700 / 3K45 Granit / SS-N-19 Shipwreck
P-700 Granit with inlet cover installed, but wings and control surfaces deployed. The annular inlet is similar in style to the MiG-21 Fishbed.
The V-MF’s planners were not satisfied with the lethality or survivability of P-70 Ametyst / SS-N-7 Starbright, P-120 Malakhit / SS-N-9 Siren, or the P-500 Basalt / SS-N-12 Sandbox, and by the mid 1970s sought the development of the P-700 Granit / SS-N-19 Shipwreck, intended as the primary armament for SSGNs and surface combatants. The P-700 Granit is carried by the massive Oscar II class SSGN.
This 7 tonne launch weight 300 nautical mile range Mach 2.5 turbojet missile was deployed also on the Kirov class battlecruisers and Type 1143.5 Kuznetsov class aircraft carrier. Some Russian sources also claim deployment on the late model Victor III SSN but there is little evidence to support this claim.
The missile and fire control system introduced numerous innovations. A digital weapon system fused tracking data from numerous sensors, automatically prioritised targets, and allocated missiles. The design was intended to assign search boxes for the missile seekers to ensure that only the highest priority targets were acquired, and lower priority targets rejected, and to ensure deconfliction between missiles.
The missile airframe was designed for sustained supersonic cruise at low altitudes. The KR-93 turbojet powerplant was initiated once the missile achieved the required airspeed, initial thrust being provided by the jettisonable booster which was ignited in the launch tube. An active radar seeker was carried in the nose, and inertial midcourse guidance employed. A 750 kg conventional or 500 kilotonne nuclear warhead was fitted.
The conventionally armed variant has a range of 300 NMI, the nuclear variant 340 NMI. The missile flies a lo-hi-lo profile, at Mach 2.5 at altitude and Mach 1.5 during the terminal phase.
The Oscar class SSGNs carry 20 rounds in launch tubes angled at 47º. These are flooded prior to launch.
Kh-41 Sunburn. China deploys the supersonic ramjet 3M-82 Moskit on its Sovremmeniy DDGs, the air launched ASM-MSS/Kh-41 variant has been integrated on the Su-30 series, via the Su-33. Below launch from Sovremmeniy DDG(Rosoboronexport).
3M24/Kh-35E/UE Uran / AS-20 / SS-N-25 Switchblade
Dubbed the Kharpunski the Kh-35U Uran (AS-20 Kayak/SS-N-25 Switchblade) is the Russian equivalent to the US RGM-84/AGM-84 Harpoon. An ARGS-35 active radar seeker is used. The missile is available in surface launched and air launched versions (AKU-58 adaptor) and was publicly canvassed as an option for India's Tu-142 Bear upgrade - it is already deployed on the New Delhi class DDG, reports indicate China ordered in 2001.
The latest extended range Kh-35UE variant employs an inertial navigation unit, a Glonass receiver, and an active radar seeker with a passive anti-radiation homing capability, the latter with a cited acquisition range of 50 km. The Glonass receiver provides a secondary capability to attack fixed coastal targets, not unlike later blocks of the AGM-84 Harpoon. the seeker can acquire targets at sea state 6.
All variants employ a Radar MMS designed ARGS-35E active radar seeker designed for attacks on maritime targets. The ARGS-35E has a cited range of 20 km, and employs a gimballed slotted planar array antenna which is steered ±45° in azimuth and +10° to -20° in elevation. This seeker design is likely to be closely related to the ARGS-54 and ARGS-14 series seekers developed by Radar MMS for the Novator Club / SS-N-27 Sizzler family of missiles. All variants use the KTRV-Detal RVE radar altimeter, which operates at altitudes between 1 metre and 5,000 metres, and is similar to the design used in the 3M-54 / SS-N-27 Sizzler.
Bal E Coastal Defence System
The Bal E is the replacement for the Rubezh coastal defence system. This design departs from the arrangement of the Rubezh, the new weapon system is designed around an 8 round TEL armed with the 3M-24 Uran ASCM and a separate command/control and targeting vehicle. Like the Rubezh, the Bal E employs a command and control vehicle equipped with an acquisition and targeting radar, and a telescoping datalink mast to network the TELs. While demonstrators were built on the MAZ-7910 chassis, production vehicles use the MZKT-7930 chassis. The stated CONOPS for the Bal E is for batteries to produce saturation missile attacks against hostile amphibious forces.
Bal E 'self propelled command/communications and targeting post' demonstrator on MAZ-7910.
Production Bal E TEL using MZKT-7930 chassis. Demonstrator on MAZ-7910 [Click here] .
Bal E transloader/transporter vehicle on MZKT-7930 chassis.
The Bal E is intended for rapid deployment, and 'shoot and scoot' operations.P-800 3K55/ Kh-61 Oniks/Yakhont / SS-N-26 Stallion PJ-10 Brahmos A/S / SS-N-26 Stallion
Kh-61 Yakhont on Su-33 Flanker D. Note the centreline Kh-41 Moskit / Sunburn.
The shining star in the current export lineup of Russian weapons is the NPO Mashinostroyenia
Yakhont, recently licenced by India as the Brahmos A and Brahmos S. China is reported to have purchased the baseline 3M-55 for a number of naval vessels.
The OKB-52 3K-55/3M-55 Yakhont (SS-N-26) is like the Moskit a complete family of supersonic rocket-ramjet missiles. Ship, submarine, air and ground launched variants exist. The missile weighs 3 tonnes at launch, and uses a liquid propellant for the ramjet which propels it at speeds between Mach 2.0 and 2.5. The Yakhont typically cruises to the target area at high altitude, and then descends for a sea skimming attack from under the horizon. The distance at which it begins its descent can be programmed before launch, this determining the achievable range which is between 65 and 160 nautical miles, all variants use the KTRV-Detal K313 radar altimeter, which operates at altitudes between 1 metre and 5,000 metres. (Also refer Tsarev V. Melnikov V. 'Yakhont - New Generation Antiship Missile', Military Parade. Exclusives, 2000.).
The Granit-Elektron seeker for the Yakhont family of missiles is one of the most sophisticated Russian digital designs seen to date. The manufacturer describes the monopulse seeker as providing a dual mode active and passive anti-radiation homing capability. In active mode the seeker provides a wideband frequency agile waveform with a pseudorandomly varied spread spectrum modulation. The design is claimed to be resistant to chaff and a number of angle/range deception jamming techniques. The seeker can acquire and track targets in sea states up to 7.
Indian promotional materials indicate guidance improvements to the Brahmos over the original design, and the intent to deploy shipboard, mobile coastal defence and air delivered variants. There has also been speculation about a land attack or dual role variant, requiring a more accurate midcourse navigation system.
At 6,000+ lb launch weight, the Yakhont/Brahmos would be carried by Su-27/30 on a centreline adaptor.
Granit-Elektron dual mode seeker used in Russian Yakhont and Indian Brahmos ASCMs (Granit -Elektron images).
Production Brahmos TELAR with targeting radar deployed. India has licenced the supersonic ramjet Kh-61 Yakhont as the Brahmos A/S series, a family of ground, sea and air launched cruise missiles. The original Yakhont has been integrated on the Su-30 series (NIC).
Bastion E Coastal Defence System
The proposed Bastion coastal defence system uses an MZKT-7930 TEL with three Yakhont rounds. Lower image shows CONOPS.
S-10 / 3M-10 / RK-55 Granat / SS-N-21 Sampson
The S-10 / 3M-10 / RK-55 Granat / SS-N-21 Sampson is the Soviet analogue to the RGM-109 Tomahawk series of strategic cruise missiles. Development of this weapon was initiated in 1976, the intent being to match the US Navy deployment of the RGM/BGM/UGM-109A/B.
The S-10 was developed by Novator, whereas the air launched Kh-55 was developed by Raduga, starting in 1971. There is little robust open source literature detailing the ealry development of the S-10. In line with the Soviet practice of reusing technology, it is likely that many key components developed for the Kh-55 migrated into the S-10 in one or another form - the effort in developing a unique TERCOM / inertial system and powerplant is hardly justifiable. Russian sources state that the prototypes used the same 1,000 lbf class TRD-50 engine, replaced by an 880 lbf class RD-95-TM300 in production S-10 airframes.
Cited specifications are a length o 8.09 m, diameter of 0.51 m compatible with 533 mm torpedo tubes, wingspan of 3.3 m, and a launch weight of 1,700 kg. At a cruise speed of Mach 0.7 cited range is 3,000 km (1,600 NMI), with a typical altitude of
500 ft AGL. The 140 kg warhead produced a 200 kT yield.
The S-10 / 3M-10 / SS-N-21 Sampson was tube launched from the Type 671 Victor SSN class, Type 945 Sierra SSN class and Type 971 Akula SSN class, and the Type 667AT Grusha / Yankee Notch class.
The Yankee Notch was an important innovation. Six of these boats were to be rebuilt from surplus Yankee SSBNs, with the ballistic missile compartment replaced with a payload of 32 S-10 / 3M-10 cruise missile rounds. Of these, eight rounds were carried in dedicated 533 mm torpedo tubes and twenty four rounds were racked reloads. The missile launch tubes were located in the sides of the missile compartment, forming a vertical row of four just aft of the boat's fin. The Yankee Notch class was scrapped in 1994, with only three deployed operationally.
The RK-55 Relief / SSC-X-4 Slingshot, designed as an equivalent to the US BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), was tube launched from a MAZ-543M (MAZ-7910) 8x8 TEL, carrying six rounds. All systems were scrapped under the SALT treaty.
Russian sources claim that the 3M-10 airframe and systems formed the basis for the more recent conventionally armed 3M-54 Club/Kalibr / SS-N-27 Sizzler family of cruise missiles, with the turbofan replaced by a thirstier and cheaper turbojet, and the fuel load reduced.
The Type 667AT Grusha / Yankee Notch class SSGN was dedicated to the carriage of 32 S-10 / 3M-10 Granat nuclear armed cruise missiles. The eight 533 mm tubes used for this purpose were built into the sides of the boat, with the recess around the tube doors visible in this image just aft of the fin (US DoD).
RK-55 Relief / SSC-4 Slingshot TEL deployed.
3M54E1 Sizzler subsonic ASCM (Novator)
3M54E Sizzler supersonic ASCM. The supersonic kill stage is carried to the target area by a subsonic cruise airframe (Novator)
The Novator 3M-54 Club (SS-N-27 Sizzler) comprises a complete family of ship (Club N), submarine (Club S) and air launched weapons. Unlike warship launched Moskit and Yakont variants, the Club is designed for launch from a 533 mm torpedo tube, or a vertical launch tube( Refer Military Parade, 2000-1 Exclusives Issue, Kamnev P. 'The Club Missile System').
Five distinct variants of this weapon exist. The basic 3M-54E1 and 3M-14E most closely resemble the US Navy's anti-ship and land attack Tomahawk missile. This weapon has a range of 160 nautical miles and is subsonic.
The 3M-54E1 uses a Radar MMS designed ARGS-54E series active radar seeker and Glonass satellite and inertial guidance, the ARGS-54E has a cited range of 65 km, and employs a gimballed slotted planar array antenna which is steered ±45° in azimuth and +10° to -20° in elevation. All variants use the KTRV-Detal RVE-B radar altimeter, which operates at altitudes between 1 metre and 5,000 metres, and is similar to the design used in the Kh-35 / 3M-24 / SS-N-25 Switchblade.
The land attack 3M-14E employs Glonass satellite and inertial guidance, with a Radar MMS designed ARGS-14E active radar seeker designed for attacks on land targets with sufficient radar contrast. The ARGS-14E has a cited range of 20 km, and employs a gimballed slotted planar array antenna which is steered ±45° in azimuth and +10° to -20° in elevation.
The similarity in seeker cardinal design parameters suggests both designs are closely related to the ARGS-35E series used in the Kh-35U Uran (AS-20 Kayak/SS-N-25 Switchblade).
The more advanced 3M-54E combines the subsonic cruise airframe of the 3M-54E1/3M-14E with a Mach 2.9 rocket propelled guided payload. It also employs the ARGS-54E seeker.
Like its subsonic sibling, it approaches from under the radar horizon using the same radar seeker to detect its target. Once locked on, it discards the cruise airframe, fires its rocket motor, and accelerates to Mach 2.9 at a sea skimming altitude of 15 feet. Novator claim the missile follows a zig-zag flightpath to defeat defences. Both the 3M-54E1 and 3M-54E are small weapons which are difficult to detect on radar, especially should even basic radar signature reduction techniques be applied to them. The 91RE1 and 91RE2 are rocket boosted homing torpedoes, most closely resembling the US ASROC and Sea Lance weapons. All five weapons in this family share a common launch system and thus any ship, submarine or aircraft equipped for these weapons can carry an arbitrary mix.
Press reports indicate that India has fielded this weapon, and there are claims China also ordered in a 'tit-for-tat' deal for planned Kilo SSKs. The air launched variant has been marketed on the Su-32FN/34 but there are no reports as yet of hard sales.
CONOPS for 3M14E Land Attack Cruise Missile, deployed by SSK/SSG or surface warship. Cited target set is 'weapons storage, POL storage, command posts, port infrastructure and airfields'.
The SS-N-27 has been widely exported on the Kilo SSK, itself a highly successful export. Above, Iranian Kilo, below Kilo internal layout.
Air Launch 3M-54 Club Variants
Air launch canisters for the 3M14AE land attack (upper) and 3M54AE anti-shipping (lower) air launched variants. The canister protects the ACLM during carriage and is jettisoned after the missile deploys.
Air launched variants: upper is supersonic 3M-54AE anti-shipping subtype, centre issubsonic 3M-54AE1anti-shipping subtype, and lower is the 3M-14AE subsonic land attack missile. The latter two are equivalent to the defunct Tomahawk AGM-109L MRASM.
Digital rendering of the air launched supersonic 3M-54AE being released from an Su-33 Flanker D (Novator).
Digital rendering of the launch sequence for thesupersonic 3M-54AE Sizzler. Rather than redesign the missile airframe to accommodate hard points, Novator opted to use a canister not unlike the encapsulated sub launch Harpoon arrangement. Once the canister is clear of the aircraft, the nosecone is jettisoned, the missile ejected, upon which it deploys its wings and tail controls, starts its turbojet engine, and cruises until the target is acquired. Not depicted is the terminal stage of the missile's flight, where the subsonic cruise airframe is jettisoned and the supersonic rocket propelled kill stage engages the target at a speed in excess of 2.5 Mach (Novator).
Digital rendering of a MiG-29K Fulcrum armed with a pair of subsonic 3M-14AE Sizzler land attack cruise missiles (Novator).Coastal Defence 3M-54 Club Variants
Club M coastal defence variant TEL, based on MZKT-7930 chassis. This configuration can also be adapted for a GLCM CONOPS.
An alternate 3M54 TEL configuration has been proposed, to deploy a total of six rounds.
Imagery Sources: US DoD, Soviet MoD, Manufacturers, Russian Internet.
Line Artwork: © 2000, 2007, 2008, 2009 Carlo Kopp
Technical Report APA-TR-2009-0805