died Dec. 3, 1993, New York City
U.S. physician and author.
He attended medical school at Harvard and later taught at various universities. He was president of New York's Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (1973–83). He translated his passionate interest in and wonder at the intricate mysteries of biology into lucid meditations and reflections on biology in award-winning essays. The best-known of his widely read books is The Lives of a Cell (1974, National Book Award).
U.S. physician and author (b. Nov. 25, 1913, Flushing, N.Y.—d. Dec. 3, 1993, New York, N.Y.), translated his passionate interest in and wonder at the intricate mystery of the Earth's biology into a series of finely crafted, award-winning essays that reached a wide audience. Thomas was the son of a doctor and a nurse. He graduated from Princeton University at age 19 and earned his medical degree from Harvard Medical School at 23. He went on to work at various universities, serving as researcher, educator, and administrator, as well as pathologist, pediatrician, bacteriologist, and epidemiologist. He joined the staff of New York University in 1954, and in 1966 he became dean of the School of Medicine there. In 1969 Thomas moved to Yale University, where in 1972 he became dean of the School of Medicine. From 1971 to 1980 Thomas wrote a column for the New England Journal of Medicine entitled "Notes of a Biology Watcher"; some of these essays were collected into a book, The Lives of a Cell (1974), which won the National Book Award in 1975 in the arts and letters category. From 1973 to 1980 he served as president of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. Other works include The Medusa and the Snail (1979), Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony (1983), and The Fragile Species (1992).
▪ American physician and author
born Nov. 25, 1913, Flushing, N.Y. U.S.
died Dec. 3, 1993, New York, N.Y.
American physician, researcher, author, and teacher best known for his essays, which contain lucid meditations and reflections on a wide range of topics in biology.
Lewis attended Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. and Harvard Medical School (M.D. 1937). He served in the U.S. Navy Medical Corps and taught at Johns Hopkins and Tulane universities and at the University of Minnesota Medical School. In 1954 he moved to New York University School of Medicine, which he left as dean in 1969 to teach in the pathology department at Yale University. From 1973 to 1983 he was president of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Thomas' first book, The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher (1974), was a collection of 29 essays originally written for the New England Journal of Medicine. His later essays were collected in The Medusa and the Snail (1979), The Youngest Science (1983), Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony (1983), and The Fragile Species (1992).Look at other dictionaries:
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Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Nationality: United States
Executive summary:The Lives of a Cell
Military service: US Navy Reserve (1942-46, WWII)
 Waldenstrom's Disease, a relative of lymphoma.
Father: Joseph Simon Thomas (physician)
Mother: Grace Emma Peck
Wife: Beryl Dawson (m. 1941)
Daughter: Abigail (b. 1941)
Daughter: Judith (b. 1944)
Daughter: Elizabeth (b. 1948)
Author of books:
The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher (1974. essays)
The Medusa and the Snail: More Notes of a Biology Watcher (1979. essays)
The Youngest Science: Notes of a Medicine-Watcher (1983. essays)
Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony (1983 )
Could I Ask You Something? (1985. poetry)
Et Cetera, Et Cetera: Notes of a Word-Watcher (1990. essays)
The Fragile Species (1992. essays)
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Biologist Lewis Thomas argues that mistakes should be thought of as a blessing rather than a misfortune, because they pave the way for new discoveries and understandings. As can be seen with past events and happenings, this claim proves to be valid as mistakes are necessary for progress.
Various scientific advancements throughout history have been errors turned into findings. Such an example can be seen in medical discoveries. Penicillin, founded in 1928 by accident, was at first thought to be useless, but after countless experimentation it was finally used as medicine and a Nobel Prize was received for it. Other substances that were discovered by coincidence include Viagra and a small pox vaccine. Viagra was originally a cardiovascular drug but during the testing phase it wasn’t effective in treating heart ailments. Scientist continued to study the unexpected side effects which were an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction. Small pox vaccination was encountered through the injection of cow pox into an eight year old boy which resulted in a counteraction of small pox. These are merely a few of that many scientific findings that at first were thought to be mistakes.
The nutrition industry of The United States of America would be incomplete without the numerous, spontaneous, discoveries over time. A man in San Francisco accidently left his juice outside in the winter and it froze. He ate the frozen juice and came up with popsicles. America’s favorite chocolate chip cookies were also a mistake. When the Toll House Inn's Ruth Wakefield ran out of baking chocolate one day in 1930, she smashed up a bar of semi-sweet chocolate and added the pieces to her dough. Upon their removal from the oven, the cookies weren't uniformly infused with melted chocolate, but rather studded with little chunks throughout. The signature sweet put her Whitman, Massachusetts inn on the culinary map. These accidental discoveries are what made the food.
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Lewis Carroll is one of the most well known Nonsense Writers. Though using nonsense in poetry has been dismissed as simply "for entertainment purposes", most nonsensical poetry acts as an allegory, has deep symbolism and leaves the door wide open for varying interpretations. Lewis Carroll has utilized this sense with nonsense through his poems and prose found in his novels Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. Through Carroll's interactions with his close friends and family, and the innovative and eccentric society and politics of the Victorian Era, he has created beautiful poetry with many different levels. The Victorian Era lasted from 1837 until 1901, which was the time during Queen Victoria's reign in England. The term Victorian has "conveyed connotations of prudish', repress', and old fashioned'"(Landow 1). This era is now seen as a time of " great expansion of wealth, power, and culture"(Landow 1). This change in ideas and politics led to great change in democracy, and saw a rise in other modern movements. Since the era lasted for so long it is comprised of several different periods including Socialism, Darwinism, and scientific Agnosticism. The widespread use of opium during the Victorian period may have influenced or been reflected in Carroll's work. "In Carroll's time five out of six families used opium habitually"(Wohl 34). The Victorian Era, ideology, and politics had a great impact on Lewis .
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Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has entertained not only children but adults for over one hundred years. The tale has become a treasure of philosophers, literary critics, psychoanalysts, and linguists. It also has attracted Carroll's fellow mathematicians and logicians. There appears to be something in Alice for everyone, and there are almost as many explanations of the work as there are commentators. It may be perhaps Carroll's fantastical style of writing that entertains the reader, rather than teaching them a lesson as was customary in his time. Heavy literary symbolism is difficult to trace through his works because of the fact he wrote mainly for entertainment. In fact, Carroll's stories, including Alice, are usually described as being direct parallels to Carroll's life. This is obvious due to the various references Carroll makes of the favorite things in his life such as his obsession with little girls and not to mention his nostalgia for childhood1. The most prominent interpretation of Alice is the theme of fantasy versus reality. The story continuously challenges the reader's sense of the "ground rules" or what can be assumed. However, with a more in-depth search, the adult reader can find Carroll may have indeed implanted a theme relative to the confusion Alice goes through as well as the reader. In Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Carroll uses not only his love for children and logic but his linguistic playfulness to create a.
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760282 Q5086341 Charlton Thomas Lewis Charlton Thomas Lewis Lewis,_Charlton Thomas 1834 1904 Ph.D. Lawyer, educator, and actuary dealing with insurance.  Fellow of the Actuarial Society of America, 1889. Lecturer on Life Insurance at Harvard and Columbia Universities, and on Principles of Insurance, Cornell University. Author of History of Germany ; Lewis and Short's Latin Dictionary ; Essays ; Addresses ; &c This author wrote articles for the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica .
Articles attributed to this author are designated in EB1911 by the initials "C. T. L."
Works by this author published before January 1, 1923 are in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago. Translations or editions published later may be copyrighted. Posthumous works may be copyrighted based on how long they have been published in certain countries and areas.
Thomas Jefferson is remembered in history not only for the offices he held, but also for his belief in the natural rights of man as expressed in the Declaration of Independence and his faith in the people’s ability to govern themselves. He left an impact on his times equaled by few others in American history.
Born on April 13, 1743, Jefferson was the third child in the family and grew up with six sisters and one brother. Though he opposed slavery, his family had owned slaves. From his father and his environment he developed an interest in botany, geology, cartography, and North American exploration, and from his childhood teacher developed a love for Greek and Latin. In 1760, at the age of 16, Jefferson entered the College of William and Mary and studied under William Small and George Wythe. Through Small, he got his first views of the expansion of science and of the system of things in which we are placed. Through Small and Wythe, Jefferson became acquainted with Governor Francis Fauquier.
After finishing college in 1762, Jefferson studied law with Wythe and noticed growing tension between America and Great Britain. Jefferson was admitted to the bar in 1767. He successfully practiced law until public service occupied most of his time. At his home in Shadwell, he designed and supervised the building of his home, Monticello, on a nearby hill. He was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1769. Jefferson met Martha Wayles Skelton, a wealthy widow of 23, in 1770 and married her in 1772. They settled in Monticello and had one son and five daughters. Only two of his children, Martha and Mary, survived until maturity. Mrs. Martha Jefferson died in 1782, leaving Thomas to take care of his two remaining children.
Though not very articulate, Jefferson proved to be an able writer of laws and resolutions he was very concise and straight to the point. Jefferson soon became a member in a group which opposed and took action in the disputes between Britain and the colonies. Together with other patriots, the group met in the Apollo Room of Williamsburg’s famous Raleigh Tavern in 1769 and formed a nonimportation agreement against Britain, vowing not to pay import duties imposed by the Townshend Acts.
After a period of calmness, problems faced the colonists again, forcing Jefferson to organize another nonimportation agreement and calling the colonies together to protest. He was chosen to represent Albermarle County at the First Virginia Convention, where delegates were elected to the First Continental Congress. He became ill and was unable to attend the meeting, but forwarded a message arguing that the British Parliament had no control over the colonies. He also mentioned the Saxons who had settled in England hundred of years before from Germany and how Parliament had no more right to govern the colonies than the Germans had to govern the English. Most Virginians saw this as too extreme, though. His views were printed in a pamphlet called A Summary of the Rights of British America (1774). Jefferson attended the Second Virginia Convention in 1775 and was chosen as one of the delegates to the Second Continental Congress, but before he left for Philadelphia, he was asked by the Virginia Assembly to reply to Lord North’s message of peace, proposing that Parliament would not try to tax the settlers if they would tax themselves. Jefferson’s “Reply to Lord North” was more moderate that the Summary View. Instead of agreeing with Lord North, Jefferson insisted that a government had been set up for the Americans and not for the British.
The Declaration of Independence was primarily written by Jefferson in June 1776. Congress felt that the Declaration was too strong and gave Dickinson the responsibility of redrafting the document, but the new version included much of Jefferson’s original text and ideas.
In 1779, Jefferson became governor of Virginia, guiding Virginians through the final years of the Revolutionary War. As a member of the Second Continental Congress, he drafted a plan for decimal coinage and composed an ordinance for the Northwest Territory that formed the foundation for the Ordinance of 1787. In 1785, he became minister to France. Appointed secretary of state in President Washington’s Cabinet in 1790, Jefferson defended local interests against Alexander Hamilton’s policies and led a group called the Republicans. He was elected vice-president in 1796 and protested the enactment of the Alien and Sedition Acts by writing The Kentucky Resolutions.
In 1800, the Republicans nominated Jefferson for president and Aaron Burr (A Buh. hahaha) for vice-president. Federalists had nominated John Adams for president and Charles Pinckney for vice-president. Federalists claimed that Jefferson was a revolutionary, an anarchist, and an unbeliever. Jefferson won the presidency by receiving 73 electoral votes (Adams received 65). Supporters celebrated with bonfires and speeches, only to find out that Jefferson and Burr received an equal number of electoral votes, creating a tie and throwing the election to the House of Representatives. After 36 ballots, the House declared Jefferson as president. As did Adams before he, Jefferson faced opposition from his own party as well as from the Federalists.
As mentioned earlier, Jefferson had an interest in North American exploration. He used his presidential power to purchase Louisiana from France and gave Meriwither Lewis and William Clark the opportunity and the responsibility to explore this vast territory. After their triumphant return, the hostile Aaron Burr engaged in a conspiracy either to establish an independent republic in the Louisiana Territory or to launch an invasion of Spanish-held Mexico. Jefferson acted promptly to arrest Burr and brought him to trial for treason. Burr was acquitted, however. Foreign policy during his second term was rather unsuccessful. In an effort for the British to respect the United States’ neutrality during the Napoleonic Wars by passing the Embargo Act, he persuaded Congress to stop all trade with Britain, a move that failed to gain any respect from Britain, alienated New England (who lived by foreign trade), and shattered the nation’s economy. Fifteen months later, he repealed the Embargo Act. In the final years of his life, Jefferson’s major accomplishment was the founding of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville. He conceived it, planned it, designed it, and supervised both its construction and the hiring of the workers. He also hired the first professors and came up with its first course of study.
Jefferson wished to be remembered by three things, which consisted of a trilogy of unrelated causes: freedom from Britain, freedom from conscience, and freedom maintained through education. On the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson died in Monticello.
Though not flawless, given Jefferson’s contributions to the shaping of American society then and how it is today, it is nearly impossible to find him morally weak and coarse. He has truly defined true American culture as it is today and has shaped the lives of many Americans both of his time and our time alike.